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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (58):
1

What is Pathology?

The study of disease

2

What is Etiology?

The study of the cause of disease

3

What is Pathogenesis?

The development of disease

4

The invasion or colonization of the body by pathogens, is known as...?

Infection

5

An abnormal state in which the body is not performing normal functions

Disease

6

Transient microbiota may be present for ______, _______, or even _______

Days, weeks, months

7

Normal microbiota ________ colonize the host and __ ____ cause disease under normal conditions

permanently; do not

8

This project analyzes relationships between microbial communities on the body and human health.

The Human MicroBiome Project

9

This type of microbiota protect the host by :
1)Competing for nutrients
2)Producing substances harmful to invading microbes
3)Affecting pH and available oxygen

Normal Microbiota

10

What happens in a commensal relationship?

One organism benefits, and the other is unaffected

11

What happens in a mutual relationship?

Both organisms benefit

12

What happens in a parasitic relationship?

One organism benefits at the expense of the other

13

Koch's Postulates:
The ______ pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.

Same

14

Koch's Postulates:
The pathogen must be isolated from the ______ host and grown in ____ culture.

diseased,
pure

15

Koch's Postulates:
The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it's inoculated into a ______, susceptible laboratory animal.

healthy

16

Koch's Postulates:
The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the _______ organism.

original

17

Koch's postulates are used to prove the cause of ....

infectious diseases

18

What are "symptoms"?

Symptoms are changes in body function that are felt by a patient as a result of disease

19

What constitutes a "sign" of an infectious disease?

A change in the body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease

20

What is a "syndrome"?

A syndrome is a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease

21

What is a "communicable disease"?

a disease that is spread from one host to another

22

What are "contagious diseases"?

Contagious diseases are diseases that easily and rapidly spread from one host to another

23

What is a "non-communicable disease"?

A noncommunicable disease is a disease that is not spread from one host to another

24

What does the term "incidence" mean in relation to disease?

The number of people who develop a disease during a particular time period

25

What does the term "prevalence" mean in relation to disease?

The number of people who develop a disease at a specified time, regardless of when it first appeared

26

A "sporadic" disease occurs _____

Occasionally

27

An "endemic" disease is...

A disease constantly present in a population

28

An "epidemic" disease is...

A disease acquired by many people in a given area in a short time

29

A "pandemic" disease is...

A worldwide epidemic

30

What are the features of an "acute" disease?

symptoms develop rapidly but the disease lasts only a short time

31

Symptoms develop _______ in "chronic" disease

slowly

32

The features of "subacute" diseases are in between ______ and _______ diseases

Acute and chronic

33

In a _____ disease the causative agent is inactive for a time but then activates and produces symptoms

Latent

34

Immunity in most of a population is known as...?

Herd Immunity

35

In a _____ infection, pathogens are limited to a small area of the body

local

36

In this type of infection, the infection is spread throughout the body...?

Systemic (generalized)

37

What is a "Focal" infection?

A systemic infection that begins as a local infection

38

This term means "a toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection"?

Sepsis

39

What is "bacteremia"?

bacteria in the blood

40

What is "septicemia"?

blood poisoning

41

What is "toxemia"?

toxins in the blood

42

What is "viremia"

viruses in the blood

43

"Subclinical disease" is also known as...?

Inapparent infection

44

Predisposing factors make the body ____ susceptible to disease?

more

45

The short period after disease incubation in which early, mild symptoms show, is known as the ______ period

Prodromal

46

In this period the body returns to its pre-disease state

Convalescence

47

Human, Animal, and Non-Living reservoirs are all...?

Continuing sources of infection

48

Indirect contact transmission: spreads to a host by a nonliving object called a...?

Fomite

49

Transmission by an inanimate reservoir such as, Waterborne, Food-borne, and Airborne pathogens, is known as...?

Vehicle transmission

50

Vectors transmit disease using two general methods:

1)Mechanical transmission - (arthropod carries pathogen on its feet)
2)Biological transmission - (pathogen reproduces in the vector; transmitted via bites or feces)

51

______-_______ ___________ are acquired while receiving treatment in a health care facility, and are also known as nosocomial infections

Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)

52

An individual whose resistance to infection is impaired by disease, therapy, or burns, is known as a ...?

Compromised host

53

What are Emerging Infectious Diseases
(EIDs)?

Diseases that are new, increasing in incidence, or showing a potential to increase in the near future

54

This "-ology" means the study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations...

Epidemiology

55

What are "Notifiable infectious diseases"?

diseases in which physicians are required to report occurrence

56

The "number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period" is known as the ....

morbidity rate

57

What is the "mortality rate"?

The number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time

58

Strain USA100: 92% of health care strains AND
Strain USA300: 89% of community-acquired strains
belong to which bacterial strain?

Staphylococcus Aureus
(Methicillin resistant)