Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (58):
What is Pathology?
The study of disease
What is Etiology?
The study of the cause of disease
What is Pathogenesis?
The development of disease
The invasion or colonization of the body by pathogens, is known as...?
An abnormal state in which the body is not performing normal functions
Transient microbiota may be present for ______, _______, or even _______
Days, weeks, months
Normal microbiota ________ colonize the host and __ ____ cause disease under normal conditions
permanently; do not
This project analyzes relationships between microbial communities on the body and human health.
The Human MicroBiome Project
This type of microbiota protect the host by :
1)Competing for nutrients
2)Producing substances harmful to invading microbes
3)Affecting pH and available oxygen
What happens in a commensal relationship?
One organism benefits, and the other is unaffected
What happens in a mutual relationship?
Both organisms benefit
What happens in a parasitic relationship?
One organism benefits at the expense of the other
The ______ pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.
The pathogen must be isolated from the ______ host and grown in ____ culture.
The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it's inoculated into a ______, susceptible laboratory animal.
The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the _______ organism.
Koch's postulates are used to prove the cause of ....
What are "symptoms"?
Symptoms are changes in body function that are felt by a patient as a result of disease
What constitutes a "sign" of an infectious disease?
A change in the body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
What is a "syndrome"?
A syndrome is a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
What is a "communicable disease"?
a disease that is spread from one host to another
What are "contagious diseases"?
Contagious diseases are diseases that easily and rapidly spread from one host to another
What is a "non-communicable disease"?
A noncommunicable disease is a disease that is not spread from one host to another
What does the term "incidence" mean in relation to disease?
The number of people who develop a disease during a particular time period
What does the term "prevalence" mean in relation to disease?
The number of people who develop a disease at a specified time, regardless of when it first appeared
A "sporadic" disease occurs _____
An "endemic" disease is...
A disease constantly present in a population
An "epidemic" disease is...
A disease acquired by many people in a given area in a short time
A "pandemic" disease is...
A worldwide epidemic
What are the features of an "acute" disease?
symptoms develop rapidly but the disease lasts only a short time
Symptoms develop _______ in "chronic" disease
The features of "subacute" diseases are in between ______ and _______ diseases
Acute and chronic
In a _____ disease the causative agent is inactive for a time but then activates and produces symptoms
Immunity in most of a population is known as...?
In a _____ infection, pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
In this type of infection, the infection is spread throughout the body...?
What is a "Focal" infection?
A systemic infection that begins as a local infection
This term means "a toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection"?
What is "bacteremia"?
bacteria in the blood
What is "septicemia"?
What is "toxemia"?
toxins in the blood
What is "viremia"
viruses in the blood
"Subclinical disease" is also known as...?
Predisposing factors make the body ____ susceptible to disease?
The short period after disease incubation in which early, mild symptoms show, is known as the ______ period
In this period the body returns to its pre-disease state
Human, Animal, and Non-Living reservoirs are all...?
Continuing sources of infection
Indirect contact transmission: spreads to a host by a nonliving object called a...?
Transmission by an inanimate reservoir such as, Waterborne, Food-borne, and Airborne pathogens, is known as...?
Vectors transmit disease using two general methods:
1)Mechanical transmission - (arthropod carries pathogen on its feet)
2)Biological transmission - (pathogen reproduces in the vector; transmitted via bites or feces)
______-_______ ___________ are acquired while receiving treatment in a health care facility, and are also known as nosocomial infections
Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)
An individual whose resistance to infection is impaired by disease, therapy, or burns, is known as a ...?
What are Emerging Infectious Diseases
Diseases that are new, increasing in incidence, or showing a potential to increase in the near future
This "-ology" means the study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations...
What are "Notifiable infectious diseases"?
diseases in which physicians are required to report occurrence
The "number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period" is known as the ....
What is the "mortality rate"?
The number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time