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Flashcards in chapter 14&15 Deck (87):
1

two continents

North America and South America -make up the region called the Americas

2

first people came to America across the _________ from _________

Bering Strait; Asia

3

first people were

Hunter gatherers

4

settled in America because

they could plant seeds in farm; some relied on fishing

5

maize

corn

6

The first urban, complex civilization in Mesoamerica

olmec

7

olmec civilization had towns with

religious and government center

8

first pyramids in America and made great sculptures; had a developed trading network

olmec

9

first in the Andes mountains in South America

chavin

10

where did the mayas live

mesoamerica

11

what did mayas trade

Obsidians and cacao beans

12

Sharp, glass like volcanic rock

obsidian

13

very valuable, usually only Rich had it, sometimes used as money

Cacao beans

14

what helped mayan villages grow

trade networks

15

when did Mayans civilization reached its height; spread to yucatan peninsula; more than 40 cities; trade, cities, warfare

classic age

16

Who treated with each other in maya civilization

highlands and lowlands

17

what maya buildings were built in cities

public plazas; pyramids;temples to honor kings;ball courts; canals

18

what was Maya war fare like

bloody; hand to hand combat

19

what did Maya's fight for

Power and land

20

what are some possibilities why Mayan civilizations declined

warfare, decreased food supply, drought, rebellion

21

Southern part of Mexico and northern Central America – rain forests-very fertile

Mesoamerica

22

mayan society had a

complex class structure

23

The upper classes in mayan society varied _____ from lower classes

greatly

24

Maya upper-class

kings, priests, professional warriors, merchants

25

MAYASWho thought to be related to gods

mayan rulers

26

MAYASwho led religious ceremonies, battles, and was the richest

rulers

27

MAYASwho were the most educated, had knowledge of math and astronomy, planned religious ceremonies

priests

28

MAYASwho fought battles and decorated bodies for war

professional warriors

29

MAYASwho organized trade , provides what was needed

merchants

30

MAYAS-farmers,slaves-orphans, owed money, captured enemies

lower class

31

belief in many gods

polytheistic

32

MAYAS-can be helpful and harmful so pleased with human sacrifice

gods

33

inca society had two main social classes

upper and lower class

34

inca capital

cuzco

35

INCAS- kings, priests, government officials

upper class

36

INCAS- farmers, artisans, servents

lower class

37

INCAS HAD NO

SLAVES

38

inca laws prevented the lower class for wearing

decorated clothing

39

INCA- empire had official

religon

40

INCA- when conquered new regions

taught their religion to conquered people

41

most important inca god

god of sun

42

INCAS- believes their _____ were related to sun god

kings

43

INCAS sacrificed

animals

44

INCAS known for

massive buildings in forts made of huge, stone blocks

45

Incas- built system of

roads that connected all the parts of the empire(kept empire connected)

46

inca jewelry made with

gold and silver

47

storytelling, history, and songs – major part of Incan tradition– Passed along from generation to generation

oral literature

48

INCAS passed on the stories from generation to generation

official memorizers

49

AZTECS 1st farmer from

Northern Mexico

50

what did Aztecs do to survive

Aztecs hired them selves out as skilledfighters

51

where was the Aztec empire

Lake Texcoco

52

what would happen if you were defeated by an Aztec

you would pay a tribute

53

payment to a more powerful ruler or country

tribute

54

AZTECStributes for usually in the form of

gOld, cotton, or food

55

AZTECmade lots of enemies this way

tribute

56

AZTECS maintained control by controlling the trade network

huge markets; merchant spies to keep eye on empire;

57

by early 1500s, _______ were the most powerful empire in Mesoamerica

Aztec

58

Key factors in the rise of Aztec empire

war to expand empire; tribute for profit; trade for control and money

59

aztec capital

Tenochtitlan

60

Built in the middle of Lake Texcoco

Tenochtitln

61

raised roads across water or wet ground

cause ways

62

floating gardens

Chinampas

63

small group of Spanish warriors reached Mexico in 1519

Conquistadors

64

AZTECSconquistadors came to ________, find ________, and spread _________

explore; gold; Catholicism

65

aztec- conquistadors led by

Hernan Cortes

66

aztec leader during cortes visit

moctezuma II

67

modern inca civilization

peru

68

what ruler led incas to expand their territory through alliances and war

Pachacuti

69

INCA control their society by

•conquered leaders were forced to moved out of villages and move in with leaders who were loyal to incan government
• children learned inca ways
•quechua- official language
• controlled economy & payed taxes with labor
•distributed goods instead of having markets and merchants

70

official inca language

Quechua

71

pay taxes through labor

mita

72

civil war fought between 2 brothers which

weakened the empire

73

fransico pizarro & Spanish demanded the incan leader convert to

Christianity ; refused so war began

74

inca- Spanish kidnapped Atahualpa & demanded room of

gold and silver

75

leader of incas when pizzaro came

Atahualpa

76

reasons for Spanish defeat

superior weapons, horses, diseases

77

One of the great maya cities located in modern-day north east guatemala

tikal

78

A slash and burn technique for farming

milpa

79

aztec society was organized, which consisted of families that shared land, schools, and a temple

calpulli

80

aztecs had a very complex writing system called

codex

81

incas had no written language. kept records with

quipus

82

american indian woman who acted as a guide and interpreter for herman cortes

malintzin

83

now a valuable source of information about the mayas; told many mayan legends and history

popol vuh

84

mayas believed their kings communicated with

gods

85

after learning to grow maize. mesoamericas also learned to grow

beans and squash

86

mayan king that had a temple built to record his achievements as a rulers; has a capital city named after him called

pacal; palenque

87

my farmer shaped hillsides into these in order to grow crops

terraces