Chapter 14 Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (350):
1

What part of the body contains almost 97% of the neural (nervous) tissue?

Brain

2

~85 billion neurons and 10-50 trillions of neuroglia make up the brain.
true or false?

true

3

How much does the average brain weigh?

3-3.5 lbs

4

Name the 4 regions of the adult brain

1. Cerebrum (Cerebral Hemispheres)
2. Diencephalon
3. Brain Stem
4. Cerebellum

5

What is included in the Diencephalon?

Epithalamus
Thalamus
Hypothalamus

6

What 3 things make up the brain stem?

* Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
* Pons
* Medulla Oblongata

7

What makes up the midbrain?

* Corpora Quadrigemina
* Cerebral Aqueduct

8

What 4 things make up the Corpora Quadrigemina?

4 colliculi, 2 superior, 2 inferior

9

Are the Ventricles of the brain all separate or continuous?

continuous

10

Other than with eachother, what else are the ventricles of the brain continuous with?

the central canal of the spinal cord

11

The ventricles of the brain are hollow chambers filled with what constantly flowing fluid?

CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid

12

What are the Ventricles lined with?

Ependymal cells

13

What is the name for the tiny openings in the 4th ventricle where the CSF leaves out of?

Lateral Apertures and Median Aperture

14

What part of the brain bridges the Lateral Ventricles to the 3rd Ventricle?

Interventricular Foramen

15

What is the name for the part of the brain that feeds the 3rd ventricle into the 4th?

Cerebral Aqueduct

16

What direction does the CSF flow in?

one direction only

17

CSF flows out of the Lateral apertures and goes where?

subarachnoid space

18

The brain has 3 cranial membranes called what?

Meninges

19

Name the 3 Cranial Meninges

Dura Mater
Arachnoid Mater
Pia Mater

20

How many fibrous layer make up the Dura Mater and what are they called?

2 layers
outer layer: Periosteal Layer
inner layer: Meningeal Layer

21

The two fibrous layers that make up the Dura Mater are fused together.
true or false?

true

22

How many types of Dural Folds are there?

3

23

Name all three dural folds

* Falx Cerebri
* Falx Cerebelli
* Tentorium Cerebelli

24

What is the stabilizing, supporting part of the brain that is like a "Seatbelt" called

Dural Folds/Septa

25

Which Dural fold separates the 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum?

Falx Cerebri

26

Which Dural fold separates the 2 hemispheres of the Cerebellum?

Falx Cerebelli

27

Which Dural fold separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum?

Tentorium Cerebelli

28

What Barrier biochemically isolates nervous tissue/CSF from general circulation?

Blood-Brain Barrier

29

What is the Superior Sagittal Sinus filled with?

Venous Blood

30

What is the Inferior Sagittal Sinus filled with?

Venous Blood

31

The only time the 2 layers of the Dura Mater are not fused together is when they separate by gaps called what?
( 2 words, areas filled with venous blood)

Dural Sinuses

32

Where do the Dural sinuses (superior sagittal and inferior sagittal sinus) eventually drain into?

internal jugular vein of the neck

33

Which layer out of the 2 layers of the dura mater, extends inward in several locations to form the 3 dura folds?

meningeal layer

34

Which layer out of the 2 layers of the dura mater, extends inward in several locations to form the 3 dura folds?

meningeal layer

35

When Arachnoid Granulation clusters together it makes the Arachnoid ______.

Arachnoid Villus

36

Which of the 3 meninges has the weblike extensions called trabeculae that secure the arachnoid mater to the Pia mater?

Arachnoid Mater ( Arachnoid Trabeculae )

37

What separates the Arachnoid Mater from the Dura Mater?

Subdural Space (contains a thin film of fluid)

38

What is the name for the space beneath the Arachnoid membrane, that is wide , where the arachnoid trabeculae span, that is filled with CSF and contains blood vessels that serve the brain?

subarachnoid space

39

Which Meninx is composed of delicate tissue and adheres directly to the surface of the brain?

Pia Mater

40

What type of cell junctions are found between ependymal cells?

tight junctions

41

Is the cell body of a neuron myelinated or unmyelinated?

unmyelinated, so really gray

42

What is a Sinus?

a gigantic vein

43

What does the pineal gland secrete?

melatonin

44

What's another word for the posterior?

caudal

45

Is CSF produced in the ventricles?

yes

46

Out of the Cranial Meninges, the dura mater's outer layer, the periosteal layer, is fused with what?

The periosteum of the cranial bones
(NO epidural space)

47

The Meningeal layer (inner layer) of the Dura Mater, continues caudally in the vertebral column as the _____ ______ of the spinal cord.

dural sheath

48

The Dural folds/septa provide stabilization and support to the _____ by limiting excessive movement.

brain

49

When the CSF leaves through the Lateral apertures in the 4th ventricle, were does it circulate through?

the subarachnoid space between the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater

50

What do we call the knob-like projections of the arachnoid mater that protrude into the meningeal layer of the dura mater and extend into the Superior Sagittal Sinus where CSF is absorbed into the dural venous sinuses?

Arachnoid Granules (clustered in adults)
or Arachnoid Villi

51

What do we call the knob-like projections of the arachnoid mater that protrude into the meningeal layer of the dura mater and extend into the Superior Sagittal Sinus?

Arachnoid Granules (clustered in adults)
or Arachnoid Villi

52

What is considered the liquid cushion of the CNS?

CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid

53

CSF is similar in composition to _____ ______ (from which it is formed)

Blood Plasma

54

What fluid completely surrounds the exposed surfaces of the CNS?

Cerebrospinal Fluid

55

The ependymal lining of the ventricles is freely permeable so the CSF is in contact with the interstitial fluid that surrounds the neurons and neuroglia.
true or false?

true

56

Where is the exact site of CSF production?

Choroid Plexus

57

How often is CSF produces and circulating?

as often as whenever your heart beats

58

Are the thin-walled capillaries of the choroid plexus in contact with astrocytes?

no

59

The ependymal cells of the choroid plexus are joined by tight junctions and have ion pumps that regulate and actively transport only certain ions. This creates what type of Barrier unique to the Choroid plexus?

Blood-CSF Barrier

60

The ependymal cells of the choroid plexus are joined by tight junctions and have ion pumps that regulate and actively transport only certain ions. This creates what type of Barrier?

Blood-CSF Barrier

61

Which Barrier is found in the Choroid Plexus, the BBB (Blood-Brain Barrier) or the Blood-CSF Barrier?

Blood-CSF Barrier

62

Which type of barrier is not in the choroid plexus and not only involves tight junctions but also involves astrocytes?

BBB (Blood-Brain Barrier)

63

Which Barrier is much smaller, the BBB or the Blood-CSF Barrier?

the Blood-CSF Barrier

64

Where is the Choroid Plexus found in the Lateral, Third, and Fourth ventricle?

* Floor of Lateral
* Roof of Third
* Wall of Fourth

65

Ependymal cells secrete CSF into the ventricles and remove _____ products from the CSF

waste

66

The entire volume of CSF is replaced every _ hours

8

67

What do the ependymal cells have on them that aid in the constant movement of the CSF?

long cilia

68

When blood leaves the left side of the heart through an artery, this blood is called ________ _____, and it has ____ oxygen (O2) levels.

Arterial Blood
High oxygen levels

69

What do you call the blood that travels through venules, has a low oxygen level and enters back in through a vein in the right side of the heart?

Venous Blood

70

What are the smallest branches of arteries?

arterioles

71

Arterioles lead into a _________.

capillary

72

Name the site of exchange of substance when dealing with blood circulation and the heart?

capillaries

73

CSF is produced from ________ blood by the Choroid Plexus.

arterial

74

After the CSF goes through all the ventricles, into the subarachnoid space, into the dural venous sinuses and into the venous blood, where does it circulate to next to start the process all over again?

heart and lungs

75

The Neurons of the Brain need a constant supply of Glucose and ______.

oxygen

76

The Neurons of the Brain can only do _______ respiration

aerobic

77

What 2 types of arteries are responsible for blood flow into the Brain?

* Internal Carotid Arteries
* Vertebral Arteries
(arteries carry O2 rich blood, brain needs oxygen)

78

How does blood flow out of the brain?

dural (venous) sinuses drain into internal jugular veins

79

What is the Medical name for a stroke?

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

80

What does a stroke do to the brain?

*shuts off blood supply to portion of the brain
* neurons die

81

What isolates the CNS neural tissue from general circulation?

BBB ( Blood-Brain Barrier)

82

Which neuroglia of the CNS control the BBB?

Astrocytes

83

Steroids, prostaglandins, and _____-soluable compounds (O2,CO2) can diffuse into interstitial fluid of brain and spinal cord

lipid-soluable compounds

84

The Blood-CSF Barrier allows chemical composition of blood and ___ to differ, and surrounds the capillaries of the _______ _______.

CSF
choroid plexus

85

There are four spots that there are breaks in the BBB, otherwise the BBB remains intact throughout the CNS. Where do these 4 breaks occur?

1. Portions of hypothalamus
2. Posterior Lobe of Pituitary gland
3. Pineal gland
4. Choroid Plexus

86

Name the largest part of the brain

Cerebrum

87

Does the cerebrum process both Somatic Sensory and Motor information?

yes

88

Which part of the brain is divided into our right and left Cerebral Hemispheres that account for ~83% of total brain mass?

Cerebrum

89

Which Dural fold separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres?

Falx Cerebri

90

What is the name for the series of elevated ridges found on nearly the entire surface of the cerebral hemispheres?

Gyrus (sing)/ Gyri (pl)

91

What do you call the shallow grooves that separate the gyri?

Sulcus (sing)/ Sulci

92

Which Sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the Temporal Lobe?

Lateral Cerebral Sulcus

93

Which Sulcus separates the Frontal lobe from the Parietal Lobe?

Central Sulcus

94

Which way does the central sulcus run?

Coronal, like a headband

95

Which Gyrus is found anterior to the Central Sulcus?
(PREvious to (before) central sulcus)

Precentral Gyrus (primary motor cortex)

96

Which Gyrus is found posterior to the Central Sulcus?
(after central sulcus)

Postcentral Gyrus (primary sensory cortex)

97

Name the Sulcus that separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe.
(this one is obvious)

Parieto-occipital Sulcus

98

What are the really deep grooves that separate large regions of the brain?

fissures

99

What is the name of the deep fissure that separates the left and right hemispheres of the brain?

Longitudinal Fissure

100

What is the name of the Fissure that separates that cerebrum from the cerebellum

Transverse (Cerebral) Fissure

101

What is the name for the most exposed part of the Cerebrum? It is the surface layer of gray matter

Cerebral Cortex or Neural Cortex

102

What part of the brain is our conscious mind, known as the "executive suite" of the nervous system?

Cerebral Cortex

103

What part of the brain coordinates complex somatic motor patterns?

Cerebellum

104

Name the 4 (5) Lobes of the Cerebral Hemisphere

* Frontal Lobe
* Parietal Lobe
* Temporal Lobe
* Occipital Lobe
(Insula)

105

Where would you find the Insula (5th Lobe)?

Pull apart Lateral Sulcus
covered by portions of temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes

106

Name the 3 basic Regions of Cerebrum

1. Cerebral Cortex
2. White Matter
3. Basal Nuclei

107

What do you call the superficial gray matter of the cerebrum that is 2-5 mm thick?

Cerebral Cortex

108

Name the Region of the cerebrum that is islands of gray matter deep within white Matter

Basal Nuclei

109

What type of axons make up white matter?

myelinated axons

110

What type of axons make up gray matter?

unmyelinated axons

111

Where is the Primary Motor Cortex found?

Frontal Lobe

112

Where is the Primary Sensory Cortex found?

Parietal Lobe

113

Where is the Visual Cortex of the brain found?

Occipital Lobe

114

Where is the Auditory and Olfactory Cortex found?

Temporal Lobe

115

Which Lobe of the Brain is responsible for conscious perception of touch, pressure, pain, taste, and temperature?

Parietal Lobe

116

Which area of the Cerebrum controls higher mental functions (all conscious thoughts, sensations, memory, complex movement, and all intellectual functions?

Cerebral Cortex "executive suite"

117

Name the 4 functional areas found in the Cerebral Cortex

* Motor areas
* Sensory areas
* Association areas
* Integrative areas

118

Which side of the body does each Cerebral Hemisphere receive Sensory information from, and send motor commands to?

the opposite side of the body

119

Name the 4 Motor areas that control voluntary movement

* Primary Motor Cortex
* Premotor Cortex
* Frontal Eye Field
* Broca's Area

120

Which of the 4 Motor areas gives us the ability to move muscles from head to toe?

Primary Motor Cortex

121

Which Motor area is the boss of the Primary Motor Cortex ?(tells it what to do)

Premotor Cortex

122

Which of the Motor areas controls the muscles necessary for speech?

Broca's Area

123

What does the Motor Area the Frontal Eye Field allow us to do?

allows us to read line by line

124

If you damaged the Broca's Area, what would happen?

you couldn't put your words together to speak

125

What part of the brain is considered your Motor Area?

Frontal Lobe

126

How much gray matter is there (looking at the Primary Motor Cortex) in a section of the brain that controls the movement of a small motor unit?

lots of gray matter
(the smaller the unit, the more gray matter)

127

Where are large Pyramidal Cells found? Cerebrum or Cerebellum?

Cerebrum

128

Pyramidal Cells have long _____ that project to the spinal cord forming large voluntary motor tracts called Corticospinal Tracts

axons

129

What type of cells allow the conscious control of precise voluntary movement of skeletal muscle?

Pyramidal Cells

130

Is there any overlap in areas of gray matter of the Cerebrum that control Movement of different areas of the body?

yes

131

When they say Motor innervation of the body is contralateral, what does that mean?

left primary motor gyrus moves right side of body
right primary motor gyrus moves left side of body

132

All of the neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex are ____________.

interneurons

133

Are Pyramidal cells, unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar?

multipolar

134

CSF formation and absorption happen at the exact same rate.
true or false?

true

135

What part of the brain is responsible for "muscle memory"?

Premotor Cortex
(memory bank for skilled motor activities)

136

Where does the Premotor cortex mainly send impulses to?

Primary Motor Cortex

137

What areas other than the Primary Motor Cortex, does the Premotor Cortex communicate with?
( 2 of them)

Basal Nuclei
Thalamus

138

What can cross the BBB with no issues?

lipophilic (lipid rich substance)

139

What 3 things do you need to know it's a BBB?

1. Astrocytes
2. thick basement membrane (of capillary)
3. Tight Junctions between endothelium

140

What type of epithelium lines blood vessels/capillaries?
(review)

simple squamous epithelium

141

What is responsible for the myelin wrapping in the Peripheral NS (PNS)?

Schwann cells

142

What is responsible for the myelin wrapping in the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes

143

Commissural (white matter) tracts run which way?

laterally

144

Ascending tracts are _______
Descending tracts are _____

sensory
motor

145

CNS= Tracts
PNS= ______

Nerves

146

What is another name for the White (matter) Columns?

Funiculi (Funiculus)

147

What is the longer word used when referring to a tract?

Fasciculi (Fasciculus)

148

What is the name for a large bundle or column of nerve tracts?

Funiculus

149

You can have X number of _________ in a funiculus

fasciculi

150

In a single fasciculus, all tracts must be either descending or ascending, but in a Funiculi, there can be both ascending and descending fasciculi.
true or false?

true

151

Where would you find a signal that came from blood or from a sweatgland?

Visceral Sensory

152

What type of neurons found is the ANS (autonomic nervous system)?

Visceral Motor Neurons

153

Which type of neurons found in the SNS ( Somatic Nervous System)?

Somatic Motor Neurons

154

Is Acetylcholine excitatory or inhibitory or both?

*excitatory at skeletal muscle
*both depending on receptor

155

Norepinephrine and Dopamine are both excitatory and inhibitory.
true or false?

true

156

Is Serotonin excitatory or inhibitory?

inhibitory

157

Is histamine excitatory or inhibitory?

excitatory

158

Where exactly on the brain would you find the Broca's Area?

left frontal lobe

159

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA or Stroke) in Broca's area would cause nonfluent aphasia which means what?

inability to form words

160

What is the general interpretive area of the brain called that is in contact with the Brocas' Area?

Wernickes Area

161

Name the 3 lobes of the brain that are concerned with conscious awareness of sensation.

*Parietal Lobe
*Occipital Lobe
*Temporal Lobe

162

What does the Olfactory Cortex have to do with, and which lobe deals with it?
(remember there are 5 lobes)

Smell
Insula but also Temporal

163

What does the Gustatory Cortex have to do with, and which lobe deals with it?
(remember there are 5 lobes)

Taste
Insula

164

Where is our visual association area found on the brain?

Occipital Lobe

165

Which Sensory Cortex allows you to feel what you're feeling by receiving information from general (somatic sensory) receptors found in skin and from proprioceptors in skeletal muscle and joints?

Primary Sensory Cortex

166

Which area of the brain interprets what we are feeling with our hand?
(hand in pocket and know its a coin)

Somatic Sensory Association Area
(Somatosensory Association Cortex)

167

Association Area = ______________ area

interpretation

168

If the Primary Visual Cortex helps you "see it", then the Visual Association Area helps you do what?

know what you're seeing

169

If the Auditory Association Area lets you " know what it is you're hearing", then the Primary Auditory Cortex does what?

allows you to hear (pitch, rhythm)

170

Where is the Olfactory Cortex located?

temporal lobe (medial cortex)

171

If your Visual association Area is damaged, you will still be able to see the letters, you just won't know what?

what they spell

172

What area of the brain is responsible for facial recognition?

Facial Recognition Area receiving impulses from visual association area

173

Which cortex of the brain receives sensory impulse from olfactory cortex giving us conscious awareness, and identification of different odors?

Orbitofrontal Cortex

174

What part of the brain is the emotional part of the brain?

Limbic System

175

What is the Orbitofrontal Cortex an example of?

an Association area
(all the others involved have the words Association Area in their name)

176

What do you call areas that receive information from many association areas, deal with extremely complex motor activities, and perform complicated analytical functions?

Integrative Centers

177

Does each sensory system of the brain have it's own association area that it projects to?

yes

178

Name the Cortical region that is part of the Integrative Centers and is considered the most complicated cortical region of all
(hint: __________ cortex)

Prefrontal Cortex

179

Which Cortex is responsible for judgment forming, analysis, logical, rational thinking? It is also in contact with the Limbic System (emotions)
(hint: most complex region)

Prefrontal Cortex

180

Define Cognition

complex learning abilities
(prefrontal cortex)

181

Which cortex of the brain is also involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?

Prefrontal Cortex

182

What cortex of the brain is responsible for judgment, reasoning, long-term planning, empathy, conscience, mood, and production of abstract ideas?

Prefrontal Cortex

183

The Prefrontal cortex has extensive connections with other cortical areas, one being other areas of the cerebral cortex. Name the other name the other 4 areas.

* thalamus
* hypothalamus
* limbic system
* cerebellum

184

Is it the left hemisphere or the right hemisphere that generally contains the general interpretive area and the speech area?

left hemisphere

185

The General (Common) Interpretive Area is not well defined location wise, but can be found in parts of which 3 specific lobes?

* Temporal Lobe
* Parietal Lobe
* Occipital Lobe

186

The General (Common) Interpretive Area along with the Prefrontal Cortex and the Language areas, are all considered ___________ Centers

Integrative

187

Which area (considered an integrative center), receives information from all sensory association areas and integrates all incoming signals into a single thought?
(hint: "Common")

General (Common) Interpretive Area

188

Which of the 3 Integrative Centers can only be found in one hemisphere of the brain (usually left)?

General (Common) Interpretive Area

189

Which integrative center plays an essential role in personality by integrating sensory information and coordinating access to complex visual and auditory memories?

General (Common) Interpretive Area

190

What muscles does the Broca's Area control?

controls muscles in speech

191

Wernicke's Area is a broad region found in the left temporal and frontal lobe.
true or false?

true

192

Which area of the left temporal and frontal lobe is active during the translation of words into thoughts?

Wernicke's Area

193

Wernicke's Area works together with what other area to contribute to verbal communication by adding emotional content?

Broca's Area

194

What area found in the left temporal and frontal lobe is responsible for interpreting the meaning of speech by recognizing spoken words?

Wernicke's Area

195

Which hemisphere is the language dominant hemispere? left or right?

left hemisphere

196

Most of the Lateral and Ventral parts of the temporal lobe, coordinate the auditory and visual aspects of language (ex: naming objects or reading)
true or false?

true

197

The Lateral Prefrontal Cortex is responsible for language comprehension and word ________.

analysis

198

The Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and most of the lateral and ventral parts of the temporal lobe, are considered part of the Language Areas of the brain. What other two AREAS did we learn about that work together often and are considered language areas as well?

Wernicke's Area
Broca's Area

199

Which Sulcus does the language area surround in the left hemisphere (language dominant hemisphere)?

Lateral Sulcus

200

Corresponding with the language areas in the left hemisphere are the corresponding areas in the right or non-language dominant hemisphere, and they are involved in "____ Language", the nonverbal emotional component of language.

body language

201

Hemispheric Lateralization allows for the "division of labor", which means the two sides of the brain may look symmetrical anatomically but are not equal in what way?

physiologically

202

If you are right-handed, chances are you have ____ cerebral dominance.

left

203

Which hemisphere of the brain is the musical, creative,artistic side?

right hemisphere

204

Which hemisphere of the brain is responsible for spoken and written language, the ability to use and understand sign language, reasoning, and numerical and scientific skills?

left hemisphere

205

Whose anterior commissure is 12% larger and corpus callosum has a broader posterior portion, males or females?

females

206

One side of the brain will become almost completely in control or dominant when a man is performing a task.
true or false?

true

207

Is lateralization less pronounced in males or females?

females

208

What do you call a cluster of cell bodies in the PNS?

Ganglion

209

What do you call a cluster of cell bodies in the CNS?

Nucei

210

The White Matter of the Cerebrum consists of myelinated fibers (axons) bundled into large ______.

Tracts
(CNS)

211

Talking about the White Matter of the Cerebrum, what do we call the connections found within the same hemisphere?

Association fibers

212

What's the name for the shorter association fibers that connect one gyrus to another?
(hint: arc)

Arcuate Fibers

213

What's the name for the longer association fibers, organized into discrete bundles called Fasciculi ?

Longitudinal Fasciculi

214

Which of the two association fibers connect the frontal lobe to other lobes in the same hemisphere?

Longitudinal Fasciculi

215

What do you call the band of fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum?

Commissural fibers

216

What is the largest commissure and is also the Bridge between the right and left cerebral hemisphere?

Corpus Callosum

217

Projection fibers unite the cerebral cortex of the brain with the lower parts of the brain and with the spinal cord.
true or false

true

218

Where do projection fibers pass through on their way toward the spinal cord?

diencephalon

219

What do you call the thick band of white matter that is a collection of projection fibers that contain all ascending and descending fibers (axons), and passes through the thalamus and some of basal nuclei?

Internal Capsule

220

When the projection fibers of the internal capsule start spreading (radiating) out through the cerebral white matter to the cortex, what is this called?

Corona Radiata

221

Is the function of the basal nuclei easy to understand and explain or confusing?

confusing

222

The Basal Nuclei are how many nuclei deep within the white matter?

3

223

What is involved in the subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone?
( ex: bend over to pic something up, this subconsciously stabilizes the supporting muscle groups you need to not fall over)

Basal Nuclei

224

Disruption to the activity of the _____ ______ results in either too much or too little movements
(ex: Parkinson's and Huntington's chorea)

Basal Nuclei

225

Name the 3 Basal Nuclei of the Cerebrum

* Caudate Nucleus
* Putamen
* Globus Pallidus

226

What three parts of the brain make up the Diencephalon?

* Epithalamus
* Thalamus
* Hypothalamus

227

What part of the brain, found in the posterior portion of the Epithalamus, secretes the hormone melatonin?

Pineal Gland

228

What hormone, secreted by the Pineal Gland, is important in the regulation of day-night cycles and reproductive function?

Melatonin

229

Which part of the Diencephalon is considered the gateway to the cerebral cortex?

Thalamus

230

What part of the diencephalon contains 80% of the neural tissue?

Thalamus

231

Which part of the Diencephalon forms the roof of the third ventricle?

Epithalamus

232

Which part of the Diencephalon forms the walls of the third ventricle?

Thalamus

233

What part of the brain (learned in lab) holds the right and left thalamus together through interthalamic adhesion?

intermediate mass

234

Before information can go to the cerebral cortex, it must go through where
(part of diencephalon)

Thalamus

235

What is the intermediate mass made of?

projections of gray matter

236

What part coordinates activities between the Basal Nuclei and the Cerebral Cortex by relaying information between them?

Thalamus

237

The thalamus consists of multiple nuclei that all together form the 7 major groups of the ________ ______.

Thalamic Nuclei

238

Afferent impulses from all senses (except smell) and all parts of the body converge on the ________ and synapse with at least one of it's nuclei.

Thalamus

239

What is considered the final relay point when talking about the thalamus being the gateway to the cerebral cortex?

when thalamus integrate the sensory info and projects to specific association cortex

240

Not only sensory inputs, but virtually all other inputs as well that are ascending to the cerebral cortex funnel through the ________.
(impulses that participate in regulation of emotion, impulses from hypothalamus, impulses from the cerebellum)

Thalamus

241

What part of the diencephalon contributes to motor function by transmitting info from the cerebellum and basal nuclei to the primary motor cortex?

Thalamus

242

The mammillary bodies are part of the hypothalamus, they are the relay stations of the olfactory pathway, but most importantly they control which movements?

reflex eating movements
(licking, chewing, swallowing)

243

What is the name of the narrow stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?

infundibulum

244

What system of the brain controls emotions and is in constant communication with the Prefrontal Cortex?

Limbic System

245

The origins of the Limbic system are from the olfactory cortex when it was significantly larger (in modern humans it is much smaller now).
true or false?

true

246

Which part of the diencephalon is known as the neural clearinghouse for both autonomic function and emotional response?
(responsible for having health issues as a result of emotional stress)

hypothalamus

247

Most of the limbic system is relayed through the what?

hypothalamus

248

What two systems communicating is responsible for the saying use your head not your heart?

communication between cerebral cortex (prefrontal cortex) and limbic system

249

Where would you find the learning stemcells that can divide?
(sounds like an animal, we don't commonly talk about this part)

hippocampus

250

What is the name of the tracts of white matter that connect the hippocampus with the hypothalamus and has many fibers that end in the mammillary bodies?

Fornix

251

The Brain Stem is similar to the organization of the spinal cord except in the brain stem there are nuclei of ____ matter (neural centers) embedded in _____ matter

gray
white

252

The brains stem nuclei are associated with __ of the 12 cranial nerves.
(heavily involved with innervation of the head)

10 of the 12

253

The Brain Stem consists of what three parts?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla Oblongata

254

What makes up the Corpora Quadrigemina?

2 superior colliculi
2 inferior colliculi

255

Brain Stem centers produce programmed, automatic behaviors necessary for survival.
true or false?

true

256

What is Mesencephalon referring to?

Midbrain

257

What are the cerebral peduncles of the midbrain composed of?

Tracts (White Matter)

258

What is the name for the tracts of the midbrain that connect the primary motor cortex (cerebral cortex) with motor neuron in the brain and spinal cord?

corticospinal motor tracts (white matter)

259

What part of the Limbic system (emotions), is the part that can sense danger just by looking at someone, fear response?

Amygdala (Amygdaloid Body)

260

Which two cranial nerves are located in the midbrain?

* Oculomotor (III)
* Trochlear (IV)

261

What type of commands do the corticospinal motor tracts carry while descending toward the spinal cord?

Voluntary Motor Commands from cerebral hemispheres

262

What does the midbrain regulate and control?

*regulates auditory and visual reflexes
* Controls alertness

263

What form the vertical pillars of the Midbrain on the ventral side?

Cerebral Peduncles

264

What part of the midbrain is posterior to the Cerebral Aqueduct?

Tectum

265

Are the Corpora Quadrigemina (sensory nuclei) located on the ventral or dorsal side of the Midbrain?

dorsal side

266

Which type of the colliculi of the Corpora Quadrigemina responds to visual cues from the thalamus?
(reflex from a light flashing and you respond)

Superior Colliculi

267

Which type of colliculi (superior or inferior) of the Corpora Quadrigemina responds to sound (auditory reflex)?

Inferior Colliculi

268

What part of the midbrain is anterior to the cerebral Aqueduct?

Tegmentum

269

Name the midbrain structure thats neurons produce and secrete dopamine and is functionally linked to the Basal Nuclei of the cerebrum by regulating it's activity (dopamine inhibits Basal Nuclei activity)?
(hint: high concentration of melanin pigment, nigra means black)

Substantia Nigra

270

Which structure of the Brain Stem means "bridge" and links the cerebellum with the midbrain, diencephalon, cerebrum and spinal cord?

Pons

271

The Pons has conduction fibers (projection fibers) that are both ascending and descending and complete the pathway between higher brain centers and the ______ ____.

spinal cord

272

Which tracts in the pons (ascending or descending) carry sensory information from nuclei in the medulla oblongata to the thalamus?

ascending tracts

273

Which tracts in the pons (ascending or descending) carry motor commands from higher brain centers to motor nuclei of cranial and spinal nerves?

descending tracts

274

The Pons also has transverse fibers that link the pons to the __________ via the Middle Cerebellar Peduncle to relay sensory and motor info to and from the cerebellum.

cerebellum

275

Where is the Respiratory Rhythmicity Center located?
(brain stem area)

Medulla Oblongata

276

What is the name of the group that includes the Nuclei involved with respiration?
(hint: PRG)

Pontine Respiratory Group

277

Which group of Nuclei is responsible for modifying the respiratory rhythmicity center activity in the medulla oblongata (medullary respiratory centers)

Pontine Respiratory Group ( PRG)

278

What is the specific name for the nuclei (Pons) involved in urination (micturition)?

Pontine Nuclei

279

What is the name of the 2 centers involved in the supraspinal regulation of micturition (urination reflexes)?

* Pontine Storage Center
* Pontine Micturition Center

280

Which part of the brain and which part of the spinal cord interact for micturition reflex?

interaction between cerebral cortex and
sacral region of spinal cord

281

What is Decussation?

The point where the nerves cross from one side of the brain to the other. (left crosses to right, right crosses to left)

282

What part of the brain sends a continuous stream of impulses (via thalamic relays) to the Cerebral Cortex, which keeps the cortex alert, conscious, and enhances excitability?
(Mental Alertness)

Reticular Formation

283

The Reticular Formation forms what System?
(hint: RAS)

Reticular Activating System (RAS)

284

Is the RAS the ascending or descending portion of reticular formation?

ascending

285

What is the most important function of the RAS?

consciousness and maintain attention
(alert, aware, oriented, focused)

286

What can depress the RAS (Reticular Activating System)?

*alcohol
*sleep meds
*tranquilizer

287

Severe damage to the RAS results in what?

permanent unconsciousness
(irreversible coma)

288

What keeps the RAS neurons active and enhances the arousing effect on the cerebrum?
(hint: impulses from 3 ascending tracts)

impulses from all ascending sensory, auditory and visual tracts synapsing with RAS Neurons

289

What is the Cerebellum primarily responsible for?
(it's overall function)

Coordinated movement

290

The overall function of the Cerebellum is divided into 2 primary functions that pertain to muscles, what are they?

* Adjusts postural muscles (adjusts to maintain balance/equilibrium)
* Programming and fine-tuning Movements at Conscious and Subconscious levels (stimulates adjustments needed to make movements smooth)

291

What are Purkinje cells?

Large branched celled (GABA neurons) in Cerebellum

292

The Arbor Vitae is the highly branched, internal white matter of the cerebellum. Arbor Vitae relays info to which type of cells?

Purkinje cells

293

Is a Purkinje cell a specialized unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar neuron?

a specialized multipolar neuron

294

If the Purkinje cell is a specialized multipolar cell found in the Cerebellum, what is the name of the specialized multipolar cell found in the Cerebrum?

Pyramidal Cell

295

What part/portion of the Brain Stem is continuous with the Spinal Cord?

Medulla Oblongata (Medulla)

296

The Medulla Oblongata has attachment sites for how many of the 12 cranial nerves?

11

297

Medulla Oblongata is the center for cooridination of complex autonomic reflexes.
true or false?

true

298

Medulla Oblongata is in control of ________ functions
(somatic or visceral)

visceral

299

What part of the diencephalon can influence the cardiovascular center of the Medulla?
It makes the heart rate increase when you're nervous to speak

hypothalamus

300

The Cardiovascular Center is one of the Autonomic Reflex centers of the Medulla Oblongata. What two Centers together make up the Cardiovascular center?
(2 areas each responsible for something different)

* Vasomotor Centers
* Cardiac Centers

301

What do the Vasomotor Centers regulate?

distribution of blood flow

302

What do the Cardiac Centers regulate?
(2 things)

*Heart rate
*Force of contraction

303

What does the Medullary Respiratory Center control?

basic rhythm and depth of breathing

304

Reticular Formation begins where and extends to where?

begins in Medulla
extends to Midbrain

305

What part of the brain stem contains the pneumotaxic and apneustic centers?

Pons

306

Name the nucleus/nuclei, that are the relay stations along the sensory/motor pathways to the Brain
(pathway where general somatic sensory info ascends from spinal cord to the somatic sensory assoc. area

*gustation (gustatory nucleus)
*audition (cochlear nuclei)
*equilibrium (vestibular nuclei)

307

What separates the right and left cerebellum hemispheres?

Falx Cerebelli

308

What part of the cerebrum help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, and regulate muscle tone?

Basal Nuclei

309

___________ _____ of the Cerebrum deal with more complex integrative functions such as memory, personality traits, and intelligence.

Association areas

310

Motor Areas of the Cerebrum control which type of movement, voluntary or involuntary?

voluntary movement

311

What part of the Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex, promotes a range of emotions including pleasure, pain. affection, fear, and anger?

Limbic System

312

What part of the diencephalon relays almost all sensory input to cerebral cortex?

thalamus

313

The Thalamus serves as the middle man while contributing to motor function by transmitting information from 2 separate areas to the primary motor area of the cerebral cortex. Name the two areas it transmits info for.

*Basal Nuclei
*Cerebellum

314

Which part of the diencephalon controls and integrates activities of the ANS?

Hypothalamus

315

The hypothalamus, along with what other system, regulates emotional and behavioral patterns.

Limbic system

316

What part of the diencephalon is considered the bodies thermostat?

hypothalamus

317

Your Epithalamus contains your ______ _____ that secretes melatonin, it also contains habenular nuclei, and this part is involved in olfaction.

pineal gland

318

You have the most melatonin as a ____, and then once you are elderly you have trouble sleeping because it decreases as you age.

baby

319

The Medulla contains both _______ (ascending)and _____ (descending) tracts

sensory and motor

320

The Medulla Oblongata contains gracile nucleus, cuneate nucleus, gustatory nucleus, cochlear nuclei and vestibular nuclei. These are all components of the _______ ________ to the brain

sensory pathways

321

Where are the nuclei located that coordinate vomiting, swallowing, sneezing, coughing, and hiccupping?

Medulla Oblongata

322

Is the Medulla Oblongata involved in Reticular formation? (along with the pons, midbrain, and diencephalon

yes, it functions in consciousness and arousal

323

Pons contains both _______ (ascending) and _____ (descending) tracts

sensory and motor

324

What exact part of the pons joins together with the Medulla to control breathing?
(it's a group)

Pontine Respiratory Group

325

The midbrain, just like the Medulla and Pons, also contains both _______ and _____ tracts

sensory and Motor tracts

326

In response to visual stimuli, the superior colliculi of the midbrain coordinates movements for which 3 parts of the body?

*Head
*Eyes
*Trunk

327

Inferior Colliculi of the midbrain coordinate movements of head eyes and the trunk as well but in response to what type of stimuli?

auditory stimuli

328

Substantia Nigra is found in which part of the brain?

Midbrain

329

Which part of the brain smooths and coordinates skeletal muscle contractions?
(also may have a role in language processing)

Cerebellum

330

Electroencephalogram is what monitors brain activity. It is a printed report of the electrical activity of the brain and is abbreviated ___.

EEG

331

Brain Waves are electrical patterns that are as unique as what?

fingerprints

332

List all 4 categories of Brain Waves

1. Alpha waves
2. Beta waves
3. Theta waves
4. Delta waves

333

What type of brainwave is found in normal resting adults

Alpha Waves

334

What type of brainwave has a higher frequency than Alpha waves and is found in adults during intense concentrating or mentally stressed?

Beta Waves

335

This type of brainwave is found in children or in intensely frustrated or emotionally stressed adults, could indicate brain disorder in adults like a tumor

Theta waves

336

Name the 4th type of brainwaves found in sleeping adults (deep sleep) and normally found in awake infants (also found in awake adults who have brain damage)

Delta Waves

337

Define Epilepsies

seizures

338

During a seizure there is lost synchronization and irratic firing of the brain.
true or false?

true

339

Is cerebral Palsy a disorder of the CNS or PNS?

CNS

340

Cerebral Palsy refers to any one of a number of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood and permanently affect body ________ and muscle ____________

body movement
muscle coordination

341

What disorder of the CNS is caused by abnormalities in parts of the brain that control muscle movements?

Cerebral Palsy

342

A fall, abuse, bacterial meningitis, viral encephalitis, or a head injury can all be causes of _______ _____

Cerebral Palsy

343

Name the disease that is an irreversible progressive brain disease that destroys memory. It is the most common cause of dimentia. It has to do with inactive retrograde and a problem with the foldings. Also formation of clumps and tangles of fibers and the loss of connections between neurons in the brain

Alzheimer's Disease

344

Name the second disease that affects memory that is a chronic disorder of mental processes caused by brain disease or injury. Marked by memory disorder, personality changes and impaired reasoning.

Dimentia

345

Name the motor system disorder that is a result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Causes trembling, impaired balance and coordination.
(Michael J Fox)

Parkinson's disease

346

Name the neurological disease that cause certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. It is a genetic disorder and symptoms don't show up until middle age. you will die from this. Later stages you can't walk, talk, or swallow

Huntington's disease

347

What is the name for a brain injury caused by a hit to the head?

Concussion

348

What is the name for a state of near-unconsciousness or insensibility?

Stupor

349

What are the four classifications of cranial nerves?

* Sensory Nerves
* Special Sensory Nerves
* Motor Nerves
* Mixed Nerves

350

how many pairs of cranial nerves are connected to the brain?

12 pairs