Chapter 14: Disorders in Immunity Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Chapter 14: Disorders in Immunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14: Disorders in Immunity Deck (43)
Loading flashcards...
1

Immunopathology

the study of disease associated with the overreactivity or
underreactivity of the immune response

2

Hypersensitivity

allergy and autoimmunity; can't distinguish between self and non-self

3

Hyposensitivity

immune system is incompletely developed, suppressed, or destroyed

4

Type 1 hypersensitivity

allergies such as hay fever, asthma

5

Type 2 hypersensitivity

blood group incompatibility, anemia

6

Type 3 hypersensitivity

rheumatoid arthritis, serum sickness, rheumatic fever

7

Type 4 hypersensitivity

Infection reactions, contact dermatitis, graft rejection

8

Allergy vs Hypersensitivity

allergy: exaggerated immune response that is manifested by inflammation; hypersensitivity: delayed reactions

9

Atopy

chronic local allergy such as hay fever or asthma

10

Anaphylaxis

systemic, sometimes fatal reaction that involves airway obstruction and circulatory collapse

11

Percentage of population prone to atopy allergy

10-30%

12

Which substance is more allergenic?
A. Proteins
B. Carbohydrates
C. Fats
D. Nucleic Acids

A. Proteins

13

Inhalants

airborne environmental allergens such as pollen, house dust, dander, or fungal spores

14

Ingestants

allergens that enter by mouth that cause food allergies

15

Injectants

allergies triggered by drugs, vaccines, or hymenopteran (bee) venom

16

Contactants

allergens that enter through the skin (detergent, latex); many are type IV (delayed) hypersensitivities

17

Rales

clicking, bubbling, or rattling sounds in the lungs

18

Most Common Food Allergens (6)

(1) peanuts, (2) fish, (3) cow’s milk, (4) eggs, (5) shellfish, and (6) soybeans; Powerfully Fuzzy Cows Employed Sour Socks.

19

Care should be taken when vaccinating patients with this food allergy

Egg

20

Synthetic Antimicrobials

Sulfa drugs; commonly cause drug allergies

21

Corticosteroids

inhibit activity of lymphocytes

22

Antihistamines

widely used drug for preventing atopic allergy symptoms; bind to histamine receptors

23

Theophylline

bronchodilator that reverses spasms in respiratory smooth muscles

24

Epinephrine

can be taken to reverse constriction of airways and slow the release of allergic mediators

25

Desensitization and Hyposensitization

"allergy" vaccines; allergen preparations include pure, preserved suspensions of plant antigens, venoms, dust mites, dander, and molds

26

Blocking Antibodies

allergen-specific IgG antibodies

27

"Decoy" Vaccine

allergy shot contains an innocuous molecule that resembles a bacterium; stops immune system components from acting inappropriately

28

Rh Factor & it's clinical significance

type of protein on RBC's; most people are Rh+; those who are Rh- may have an "allergic reaction" to their Rh+ baby when they are pregnant; reaction causes fetus to become anemic

29

fatal hemolytic disease of the
newborn (HDN)

maternal anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta, affix to fetal RBCs, and cause complement-mediated lysis

30

RhoGAM antiserum

For Rh- mother with an Rh+ fetus; must be given with each pregnancy (serums are passive immunity)