Chapter 14. Lymphatic and Immune Systems - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14. Lymphatic and Immune Systems - Medical Terms Deck (76):
1

acquired immunity

formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen

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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

depression or suppression of the immune system after exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems

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adenoids

masses of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx

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allergen

substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity in a body; an antigen

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allergy

abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen (allergen)

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anaphylaxis

exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance

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antibody

protein produced in the bloodstream by lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen, such as a bacterium or toxin; antibodies destroy or weaken antigens

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antigen

substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody

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asplenia

no spleen

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atopy

intense allergic reaction (such as asthma) influenced by hereditary tendency or predisposition

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autoimmune disease

chronic disabling disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies to normal body tissues; multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus are examples

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axillary nodes

lymph nodes under the arm

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B cell

a lymphocyte that originates in bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies

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CD4 cell

Helper T cell that carries the CD4 protein antigen on its surface

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cervical nodes

lymph nodes in the neck

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complement system

proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T cells kill their target

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cytokines

proteins that aid cells to destroy antigens; examples are interleukins and interferons

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cytotoxic T cell

T cell lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells; T8 cell

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dendritic cell

a type of macrophage that captures antigens and presents them to T cells for destruction

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ELISA

test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in blood; this is a screening test for AIDS

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helper T cell

lymphocyte that aids a B cell lymphocyte in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production

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Hodgkin disease

malignant tumor of lymphatic tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes

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human immunodeficiency virus

virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS

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hypersensitivity

abnormal condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the immune system to an antigen

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hypersplenism

syndrome of spleen enlargement (splenomegaly) and destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis)

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immunity

body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins; this includes natural immunity and acquired immunity

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immunoelectrophoresis

laboratory test that separates immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE, and IgA)

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immunoglobulins

antibodies (proteins) secreted by B-cell lymphocytes (plasma cells)

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immunosuppression

blocking or turning off the normal immune response

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immunotherapy

use of immunologic techniques to treat disease

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inguinal node

lymph node in the groin region

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interferons

anti-viral proteins secreted by lymphocytes

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interleukins

proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the immune system including B & T cell lymphocytes

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interstitial fluid

fluid that fills the spaces in between cells

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kaposi sarcoma

malignant tumor of skin and connective tissue; associated with AIDS

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lymph

fluid that circulates within lymph vessels and lymph nodes

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lymphadenitis

inflammation of lymph nodes

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lymphadenopathy

disease of lymph nodes

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lymph capillaries

tiny lymph vessels that carry lymph through the body

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lymphedema

abnormal collection of fluid in tissue spaces caused by obstruction of lymph vessels and backflow of lymph

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lymph node

mass of stationary lymphatic tissue along the path of lymph vessels

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lymphocytes

white blood cells that develop primarily in lymph nodes and the spleen and fight against foreign organisms

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lymphocytosis

increase in numbers of lymphocytes in the bloodstream

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lymphocytopenia

deficiency of lymphocytes

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lymphoid organs

organs containing and derived from lymphatic tissue

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lymphoma

malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue

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lymphopoiesis

formation of lymphocytes

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lymph vessel

carries lymph throughout the body

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macrophage

large phagocyte found in lymphatic tissues and connective tissues; derived from a monocyte

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mediastinal nodes

lymph nodes in the mediastinum (central area between the lungs in the chest)

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monoclonal antibody

antibody produced in a laboratory to attack specific antigens

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multiple myeloma

malignant tumor of bone marrow cells (plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins)

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natural immunity

person's own genetic ability to fight off disease; it includes phagocytes and lymphocytes such as natural killer cells

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non-Hodgkin lymphoma

malignant tumor of cells (lymphocytes and large macrophages called histocytes) found in lymph nodes and spleen

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opportunistic infections

infectious diseases associated with AIDS; toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, herpes simplex, and pneumoncytosis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

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plasma cell

B cell lymphocyte that secretes antibodies

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protease inhibitors (PI)

drugs used to treat AIDS by blocking production of protease, and enzyme that helps HIV to reproduce

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right lymphatic duct

receives lymph from the right side of the body and empties lymph into a vein in the neck

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severe combined immunodeficiency disease

infants are born with a deficiency of B cells and T cells resulting in a lack of immunity

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spleen

organ adjacent to the stomach (in the LUQ) that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells

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splenectomy

removal of the spleen

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splenomegaly

enlargement of the spleen

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suppressor T cell

lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T cell lymphocytes

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T cell

lymphocyte originating in the thymus gland and destroys antigens by direct action or production of cytokines such as interferons and interleukins

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thoracic duct

large lymphatic vessel in the upper chest

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thymectomy

removal of the thymus gland

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thymoma

malignant tumor of the thymus gland

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thymus gland

lymphoid organ in the mediastinum that produces T cell lymphocytes and aids in the immune response

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tonsils

masses of lymphatic tissue on either side of the back of the mouth

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toxic

pertaining to a toxin, which is a poison or harmful substance

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toxin

poison or harmful substance

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vaccination

introduction of a vaccine (containing dead or weakened antigen) to produce immunity; it is a type of acquired immunity

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vaccine

weakened or dead antigens to induce antibody production

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viral load test

measures the amount of HIV in the bloodstream

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wasting syndrome

weight loss and decrease in muscle strength, appetite, and mental activity that occurs with AIDS

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Western blot

specific test to detect presence of anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream