Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders Deck (109):
Believing your family members are imposters
Sickness or disorder of the mind
Psychopathology was initially thought to be madness or demons
Hippocrates classified psychopathologies as what?
Mania, melancholia, and phrenitis
Hippocrates thought these disorders resulted from the "humors" or bodily fluids a person possessed.
Black bile - sadness and depression
Mental issues are caused by a combo of what?
Biology and environment
How many Americans will have some form of mental disorder this year?
1 in 2 or 50%
Mental disorders are prevalent in developed societies
What disorders are common in women vs men?
Women = anxiety + depression
Men = antisocial personality disorder + autism
The diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder?
It has to interfere with at least one aspect of a person's life
Factors that contribute to the development of a disorder
Emil Kraepelin separated disorders of mood from disorders of cognition
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
It is standard in psychology and psychiatry and helps classify mental disorders
The system used in the DSM; it calls for assessment along five axes that describe important mental health factors. The five axes:
1. Major clinical disorders (depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety)
2. Mental retardation (intellectual functioning problems) and personality disorders
3. Medical conditions that may contribute to a person's psychological functioning
4. Psychosocial problems (legal, financial, or family problems)
5. Global or overall assessment of how well the person is functioning based on a 100 point scale
A person either HAS a mental disorder or does NOT have one
Consider mental disorders along a continuum in which people vary in degree rather than in kind
Problems with DSM?
It takes categorical approach; either you have the disorder or not
people seldom fit into the precise categories provided
The process of examining a person's mental functions and psychological health. The goal of assessment is to make a diagnosis
The course and probable outcome of a patient
Mental status exam
Behavioral observations, evaluation of person's grooming, speech, thought content, and memory
Asking a person about their symptoms and such
Most clinical interviews are what?
Unstructured - the psychologist molds questions for the client
Clinicians ask standardized questions in the same order each time
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
567 true/false items that assess emotions, thoughts, and behaviors
Research guides the evaluation and diagnosis of mental disorders (the selection of appropriate psychological tests, and the use of critical thinking for ex.
When mental disorders occur together
Diathesis stress model
Proposes a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event... Ex: When you have a genetic predisposition to anxiety and you're put in a stressful situation, it's more likely for you to get anxiety ..... OR if you experienced trauma (that could cause anxiety potentially) and then you're put in a stressful situation, it's more likely for you to get anxiety....
Family systems model
A diagnostic model that considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems within their family
A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures
Cognitive behavioral approach
A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive thoughts and beliefs (as a result of behavioral condition-response learned thoughts)
What disorders are equally Lille in the sexes?
Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and OCD
What's more common in males?
Alcohol and drug dependence and antisocial personality disorder and ADHD
What's more likely in females?
Depression and anxiety and anorexia
These are characterized by negative emotions and they can be grouped into categories that reflect the emotions of distress and fear. For example, distress = depression and anxiety disorders. Fear= phobias and panic disorders of 628
Characterized by disinhibition. Include alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder
Females are more likely to experience ___ disorders and males are more likely to experience ____ disorders
What are culture-bound syndromes?
These disorders occur mainly in specific cultures or regions. They are listed in the DSM
People diagnosed with mental disorders have what in common?
1. Their behavior deviates from cultural norms
2. Their behavior is maladaptive
Disorders characterized by excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger
What can chronic stress/anxiety do?
Hurt the hippocampus, result in hypertension and headaches, etc
Fear of particular objects or situations
Common specific phobias?
Fear of heights, snakes, or enclosed spaces, or fear of flying
Fear of being negatively evaluated by others
Generalized anxiety disorder
Constantly anxious, worrying incessantly about minor matters - almost anything
Recurring unwanted thoughts, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, etc.
People with this specific phobia fear being in situations in which escape is difficult to impossible
How does OCD come about?
Probably through classical conditioning
What are the categories of mood disorders?
Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders
A form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression but LASTS WAY LONGER THAN MAJOR DEPRESSION
Depression is the leading cause of mental disability
What is the most prevalent mental disorder??
Women internalize their feelings which leads to depression and anxiety and men externalize their feelings with alcohol, drugs, and violence
Periods of depression with periods of mania (elevated mood, grandiose ideas, extreme distractibility) and periods of hypomania (heightened creativity and productivity)
The genetic component of depression is much weaker than the genetic component of what?
Bipolar and schizophrenia
What is used to treat depression?
SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
A cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events in their lives
Mental disorders that involve disruptions of identity, of memory, and of conscious awareness
Dissociative disorders are the result of what?
Extreme stress. A person with dissociative disorder has split off a traumatic event in order to protect the self.
A person forgets that an event happened or loses awareness of a substantial block of time.
In dissociative amnesia, you forget personal facts like your identity
A loss of identity and traveling tons new location and sometimes the assumption of a new identity
Dissociative identity disorder
The occurrence of 2 or more distinct identities in the same individual
Who are most people diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder?
Women who report being severely abused as children..... Children cope with abuse by pretending it is happening to someone else
Disconnection from reality
False beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality
False sensory perceptions that are experienced without an external source
Loosening of associations
A speech pattern among some people with schizophrenia in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaningless
Stringing together words that rhyme but have no other apparent link
Acting in strange or unusual ways; including strange movement of limbs, bizarre speech, and inappropriate self care like failing to dress properly and bathe
Mindlessly repeating words they hear, a behavior called echolalia
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Symptoms of schizophrenia that are marked by excesses in functioning such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech or behavior
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Symptoms of schizophrenia marked by defecits in functioning such as apathy, lack of emotion, slowed speech and movement
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Withdrawn, avoid eye contact, long pauses before answering a question,
What can be treated the most in schizophrenia?
The positive symptoms can be reduced or eliminated with antipsychotic medications, but negative symptoms often persist
There is not a set gene for schizophrenia
A combo of genes can cause schizophrenia
Brain structure of schizophrenics?
Children who are at risk?
Negative moods, weird motor movements, unusual social behavior
What can put you at risk for schizophrenia?
Growing up in a dysfunctional family
Increased stress of urban environments can also trigger schizophrenia
Some people interact with the world in maladaptive and inflexible ways... When this style of interaction is long lasting and causes problems in work or social situations, it becomes a personality disorder
What are the types of personality disorders?
Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders
What are people with personality disorders like??
Reclusive and suspicious and have difficulty forming personal relationships because of their strange behavior and aloofness
Anxious or fearful personality disorders
Obsessive compulsive, avoidant, dependent - these disorders share some characteristics of anxiety disorders, but personality disorders refer to general ways of interacting with others and responding to events
Dramatic, emotional, or erratic personality disorders
Histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial.
Personality disorders are extreme versions of normal personality traits so that makes them controversial
There is overlap between personality disorders
Personality disorders do not affect daily life as much as clinical disorders
Borderline personality disorder
Characterized by disturbances in identity, in affect, and in impulse control. They are on the borderline of normal and psychotic. They lack a strong sense of self, cannot tolerate being alone, and have a fear of abandonment. They desperately need an exclusive and dependent relationship with another person. They are emotionally unstable and have shifts from one mood to another. They are impulsive. Binge-eating and purging! Self mutilation is most commonly associated with borderline personality disorder. They show sleep abnormalities. Overly sensitive to others' reactions.
A grandiose sense of self worth, manipulativeness, people with psychopathic tendencies kill preplanned. Not impulsively.
Antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder marked by lack of empathy and remorse. People with antisocial personality disorder break the law, act irresponsibly, and feel a lack of remorse for their behavior. They are hedonistic (pleasure seeking) seeking immediate gratifications
Difference between antisocial personality disorder and psychopath
Psychopaths have a grandiose sense of self worth and more manipulative qualities whereas someone with antisocial personality disorder just has a lack of remorse and empathy
How many prisoners have antisocial personality disorder?
Approximately 50 percent of the prison population
People with antisocial personality disorder have a low level of arousal which is why they seek out risky crazy behaviors
Antisocial personality disorder
These ppl engage in socially undesirable behavior, are hedonistic and impulsive, and lack empathy for others
A developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interests
More males are autistic
Autism spectrum disorders
Covers the range of symptoms of autistic disorder
Normal intelligence but impaired social interaction
Autistic babies don't hold eye contact
Verbal and nonverbal communication is impaired in autistic kids
When children with autism replace "I" with "you"
Children with autism are oblivious to people around them but are acutely aware of their surroundings
Any changes in daily routine upset people with autism
Some think that autism happens when you have introverted, meticulous, insensitive, highly intellectual parents
Gene mutations play a role with autism
Autistic people have trouble with mirror neurons and have trouble learning through observation