Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders Deck (109):
1

Capgras Syndrome

Believing your family members are imposters

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Psychopathology

Sickness or disorder of the mind

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Psychopathology was initially thought to be madness or demons

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Hippocrates classified psychopathologies as what?

Mania, melancholia, and phrenitis

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Hippocrates thought these disorders resulted from the "humors" or bodily fluids a person possessed.

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Melancholia

Black bile - sadness and depression

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Mental issues are caused by a combo of what?

Biology and environment

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How many Americans will have some form of mental disorder this year?

1 in 2 or 50%

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Mental disorders are prevalent in developed societies

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What disorders are common in women vs men?

Women = anxiety + depression
Men = antisocial personality disorder + autism

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The diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder?

It has to interfere with at least one aspect of a person's life

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Etiology

Factors that contribute to the development of a disorder

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Emil Kraepelin separated disorders of mood from disorders of cognition

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14

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

It is standard in psychology and psychiatry and helps classify mental disorders

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Multiaxial system

The system used in the DSM; it calls for assessment along five axes that describe important mental health factors. The five axes:
1. Major clinical disorders (depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety)
2. Mental retardation (intellectual functioning problems) and personality disorders
3. Medical conditions that may contribute to a person's psychological functioning
4. Psychosocial problems (legal, financial, or family problems)
5. Global or overall assessment of how well the person is functioning based on a 100 point scale

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Categorical approach

A person either HAS a mental disorder or does NOT have one

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Dimensional approach

Consider mental disorders along a continuum in which people vary in degree rather than in kind

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Problems with DSM?

It takes categorical approach; either you have the disorder or not

people seldom fit into the precise categories provided

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Assessment

The process of examining a person's mental functions and psychological health. The goal of assessment is to make a diagnosis

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Prognosis

The course and probable outcome of a patient

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Mental status exam

Behavioral observations, evaluation of person's grooming, speech, thought content, and memory

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Clinical interview

Asking a person about their symptoms and such

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Most clinical interviews are what?

Unstructured - the psychologist molds questions for the client

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Structured interviews

Clinicians ask standardized questions in the same order each time

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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

567 true/false items that assess emotions, thoughts, and behaviors

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Evidence-based assessments

Research guides the evaluation and diagnosis of mental disorders (the selection of appropriate psychological tests, and the use of critical thinking for ex.

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Comorbidity

When mental disorders occur together

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Diathesis stress model

Proposes a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event... Ex: When you have a genetic predisposition to anxiety and you're put in a stressful situation, it's more likely for you to get anxiety ..... OR if you experienced trauma (that could cause anxiety potentially) and then you're put in a stressful situation, it's more likely for you to get anxiety....

29

Family systems model

A diagnostic model that considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems within their family

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Sociocultural model

A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures

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Cognitive behavioral approach

A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive thoughts and beliefs (as a result of behavioral condition-response learned thoughts)

31

What disorders are equally Lille in the sexes?

Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and OCD

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What's more common in males?

Alcohol and drug dependence and antisocial personality disorder and ADHD

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What's more likely in females?

Depression and anxiety and anorexia

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Internalizing disorders?

These are characterized by negative emotions and they can be grouped into categories that reflect the emotions of distress and fear. For example, distress = depression and anxiety disorders. Fear= phobias and panic disorders of 628

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Externalizing disorders

Characterized by disinhibition. Include alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder

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Females are more likely to experience ___ disorders and males are more likely to experience ____ disorders

1. Internalizing
2. Externalizing

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What are culture-bound syndromes?

These disorders occur mainly in specific cultures or regions. They are listed in the DSM

38

People diagnosed with mental disorders have what in common?

1. Their behavior deviates from cultural norms
2. Their behavior is maladaptive

39

Anxiety disorders

Disorders characterized by excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger

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What can chronic stress/anxiety do?

Hurt the hippocampus, result in hypertension and headaches, etc

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Specific phobias

Fear of particular objects or situations

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Common specific phobias?

Fear of heights, snakes, or enclosed spaces, or fear of flying

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Social phobia

Fear of being negatively evaluated by others

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Generalized anxiety disorder

Constantly anxious, worrying incessantly about minor matters - almost anything

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PTSD

Recurring unwanted thoughts, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, etc.

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Agoraphobia

People with this specific phobia fear being in situations in which escape is difficult to impossible

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How does OCD come about?

Probably through classical conditioning

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What are the categories of mood disorders?

Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders

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Dysthymia

A form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression but LASTS WAY LONGER THAN MAJOR DEPRESSION

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Depression is the leading cause of mental disability

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What is the most prevalent mental disorder??

Depression!!

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Women internalize their feelings which leads to depression and anxiety and men externalize their feelings with alcohol, drugs, and violence

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Bipolar disorder

Periods of depression with periods of mania (elevated mood, grandiose ideas, extreme distractibility) and periods of hypomania (heightened creativity and productivity)

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The genetic component of depression is much weaker than the genetic component of what?

Bipolar and schizophrenia

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What is used to treat depression?

SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)

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Learned helplessness

A cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events in their lives

57

Dissociative disorders

Mental disorders that involve disruptions of identity, of memory, and of conscious awareness

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Dissociative disorders are the result of what?

Extreme stress. A person with dissociative disorder has split off a traumatic event in order to protect the self.

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Dissociative amnesia

A person forgets that an event happened or loses awareness of a substantial block of time.

60

In dissociative amnesia, you forget personal facts like your identity

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61

Dissociative fugue

A loss of identity and traveling tons new location and sometimes the assumption of a new identity

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Dissociative identity disorder

The occurrence of 2 or more distinct identities in the same individual

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Who are most people diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder?

Women who report being severely abused as children..... Children cope with abuse by pretending it is happening to someone else

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Psychosis

Disconnection from reality

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Delusions

False beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality

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Hallucinations

False sensory perceptions that are experienced without an external source

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Loosening of associations

A speech pattern among some people with schizophrenia in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaningless

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Clang associations

Stringing together words that rhyme but have no other apparent link

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Disorganized behavior

Acting in strange or unusual ways; including strange movement of limbs, bizarre speech, and inappropriate self care like failing to dress properly and bathe

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Catatonic schizophrenia

Mindlessly repeating words they hear, a behavior called echolalia

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Positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Symptoms of schizophrenia that are marked by excesses in functioning such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech or behavior

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Negative symptoms of schizophrenia

Symptoms of schizophrenia marked by defecits in functioning such as apathy, lack of emotion, slowed speech and movement

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Negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Withdrawn, avoid eye contact, long pauses before answering a question,

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What can be treated the most in schizophrenia?

The positive symptoms can be reduced or eliminated with antipsychotic medications, but negative symptoms often persist

75

There is not a set gene for schizophrenia

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A combo of genes can cause schizophrenia

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Brain structure of schizophrenics?

Enlarged ventricles

78

Children who are at risk?

Negative moods, weird motor movements, unusual social behavior

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What can put you at risk for schizophrenia?

Growing up in a dysfunctional family

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Increased stress of urban environments can also trigger schizophrenia

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81

Personality disorder

Some people interact with the world in maladaptive and inflexible ways... When this style of interaction is long lasting and causes problems in work or social situations, it becomes a personality disorder

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What are the types of personality disorders?

Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders

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What are people with personality disorders like??

Reclusive and suspicious and have difficulty forming personal relationships because of their strange behavior and aloofness

84

Anxious or fearful personality disorders

Obsessive compulsive, avoidant, dependent - these disorders share some characteristics of anxiety disorders, but personality disorders refer to general ways of interacting with others and responding to events

85

Dramatic, emotional, or erratic personality disorders

Histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial.

86

Personality disorders are extreme versions of normal personality traits so that makes them controversial

..

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There is overlap between personality disorders

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Personality disorders do not affect daily life as much as clinical disorders

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89

Borderline personality disorder

Characterized by disturbances in identity, in affect, and in impulse control. They are on the borderline of normal and psychotic. They lack a strong sense of self, cannot tolerate being alone, and have a fear of abandonment. They desperately need an exclusive and dependent relationship with another person. They are emotionally unstable and have shifts from one mood to another. They are impulsive. Binge-eating and purging! Self mutilation is most commonly associated with borderline personality disorder. They show sleep abnormalities. Overly sensitive to others' reactions.

90

Psychopath

A grandiose sense of self worth, manipulativeness, people with psychopathic tendencies kill preplanned. Not impulsively.

91

Antisocial personality disorder

A personality disorder marked by lack of empathy and remorse. People with antisocial personality disorder break the law, act irresponsibly, and feel a lack of remorse for their behavior. They are hedonistic (pleasure seeking) seeking immediate gratifications

92

Difference between antisocial personality disorder and psychopath

Psychopaths have a grandiose sense of self worth and more manipulative qualities whereas someone with antisocial personality disorder just has a lack of remorse and empathy

93

How many prisoners have antisocial personality disorder?

Approximately 50 percent of the prison population

94

People with antisocial personality disorder have a low level of arousal which is why they seek out risky crazy behaviors

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95

Antisocial personality disorder

These ppl engage in socially undesirable behavior, are hedonistic and impulsive, and lack empathy for others

96

Autistic disorders

A developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interests

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More males are autistic

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Autism spectrum disorders

Covers the range of symptoms of autistic disorder

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Asperger's syndrome

Normal intelligence but impaired social interaction

100

Autistic babies don't hold eye contact

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101

Verbal and nonverbal communication is impaired in autistic kids

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102

Pronoun reversal

When children with autism replace "I" with "you"

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Children with autism are oblivious to people around them but are acutely aware of their surroundings

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104

Any changes in daily routine upset people with autism

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105

Some think that autism happens when you have introverted, meticulous, insensitive, highly intellectual parents

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106

Gene mutations play a role with autism

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107

Autistic people have trouble with mirror neurons and have trouble learning through observation

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108

Attention defecits disorder

A disorder characterized by restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity