Chapter 14 - Seeing and Hearing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Seeing and Hearing Deck (72):
1

Conjunctiva

MM that lines the underside of each eyelid

2

Ciliary body and muscles

The body is a thickened extension of the choroid in which the ciliary muscles are located. These muscles adjust shape and thickness of lens.

3

Suspensory ligaments

These ligaments are located between the ciliary body and muscles and the lens. They connect the two.

4

Iris

Pigmented, muscular diaphragm of the choroid that surrounds the pupil

5

Pupil

Circular opening in the center of the iris

6

Fovea centralis

Path of light
Contains the greatest concentration of cones in the retina

7

Anterior chamber (aqueous humor)

Eye cavity located between the caudal surface of the cornea and the cranial surface of the iris

8

Cornea

Transparent anterior portion of the sclera
Provides most of the focusing power of the eye

9

Lens

Clear, flexible, curved capsule located behind the iris and pupil

10

Vitreous humor

Soft, clear, jellylike mass that fills the vitreous chamber

11

Retina

Nervous tissue layer of the eye that receives images; located in the posterior chamber of the eye

12

Optic nerve

Nerve exciting the caudal portion of the vitreous chamber transmitting impulse to the brain

13

Choroid

Opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains blood vessels and supplies blood for the entire eye

14

Sclera

Fibrous outer layer of the eye that maintains the shape of the eye

15

Refraction

Process of the lens bending the light rays to help them focus on the retina
Also called focusing

16

Convergence

Simultaneous inward movement of both eyes. Convergence usually occurs in an effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object approaches

17

Acuity

Sharpness or acuteness, usually in reference to vision

18

Fluorescein dye stain

Diagnostic test to detect corneal injury by placing dye on the surface of the cornea

19

Menace response

Diagnostic test to detect vision in which movement is made toward the animal to test whether it will see movement and try to close its eyelid

20

Ophthalmoscope

Instrument used for visual examination of the eye

21

Palpebral reflex

Diagnostic test in which the eye should blink in response to touch to the medial canthus of the eye
This test is used to make neurologic assessment of cranial nerves V and VII and to assess depth of anesthesia

22

Pupillary light reflex

Response of pupil to light; abbrev. PLR
When light is shown in the pupil, constriction should take place

23

Schirmer tear test

Diagnostic test using a graded paper strip to measure tear production

24

Tonometry

Procedure using an instrument to measure intraocular pressure indirectly

25

Intraocular pressure

This is determined by the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force

26

Schiotz tonometer

An example of an applanation tonometer

27

Anisocoria

Condition of unequal pupil size

28

Blepharitis

Inflammation of the eyelid

29

Cataract

Cloudiness or opacity of the lens

30

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva (pink eye)

31

Corneal ulceration

Surface depression on the cornea

32

Ectropion

Eversion, or turning outward, of the eyelid

33

Entropion

Inversion, or turning inward, of the eyelid

34

Epiphora

Excessive tear production

35

Glaucoma

Group of disorders resulting from elevated intraocular pressure

36

Keratitis

Inflammation of the cornea

37

Keratoconjunctivitis

Inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva

38

Microphthalmia

Abnormally small eyes
Also called microphthalmos

39

Nystagmus

Involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eye

40

Proptosis

Displacement of the eye from the orbit

41

Retinal detachment

Separation of the nervous layer of the eye from the choroid
Also called detached retina

42

Retinopathy

Any disorder of the retina

43

Scleral injection

Dilation of blood vessels into the sclera

44

Strabismus

Disorder in which the eyes are not directed in a parallel manner

45

Convergent strabismus

Deviation of the eyes toward each other (also known as crossed eyes and esotropia)

46

Divergent strabismus

Deviation of the eye away from each other (also called exotropia)

47

Uveitis

Inflammation of the uvea

48

Enucleation

Removal of the eyeball

49

Pinna or auricle

Outer part of the ear
Earflap

50

External auditory canal

Tube that transmits sound from the pinna to the tympanic membrane/eardrum
Also known as the external auditory meatus

51

Tympanic membrane

Eardrum

52

Stapes

Stirrup

53

Malleus

Hammer

54

Incus

Anvil

55

Semicircular canals

Located adjacent to the vestibule

56

Cochlea

Spiral-shaped passage that leads from the oval window to the inner ear

57

Oval window

Located at the base of the stapes, is the membrane that separates the middle and inner ear

58

Round window

Membrane that receives sound waves through fluid after they have passed through the cochlea

59

Eustachian tube

Narrow duct that leads from the middle ear to the nasopharynx
Helps equalize air pressure in the middle ear with that of the atmosphere

60

Air conduction

Sound waves enter the pinna, travel through the external auditory canal, and strike the tympanic membrane

61

Bone conduction

The tympanic membrane vibrates
Ossicles conduct sound waves through the middle ear

62

Sensorineural conduction

Sound vibrations enter the inner ear via the oval window. Structures of the inner ear respond to sound waves. Sound waves initiate nerve impulses that are relayed to the brain

63

Otoscopy

Procedure used to examine the ear for parasites, irritation to the ear lining, discharge, and the integrity of the tympanic membrane

64

Otoscope

Instrument used for otoscopy

65

Aural hematoma

Collection or mass of blood on the outer ear

66

Myringitis

Inflammation of the eardrum

67

Otitis

Inflammation of the ear
Otitis externa refers to outer ear
Otitis media refers to middle ear
Otitis interna refers to inner ear

68

Panotitis

Inflammation of all ear parts

69

Ablation

Removal of a part

70

Myringectomy

Surgical removal of all or part of the eardrum
Also called tympanectomy

71

Otoplasty

Surgical repair of the ear

72

Accommodation

Process of eye adjustments for seeing objects at various distances. These adjustments are accomplished through changes in lens shape.