Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Sexual Orientation and Identity Deck (45):
Define sexual identify
Ones self identity as gay, heater, bi, asexual etc
What is sexual orientation?
Persons erotic and emotional orientation toward members of his or her own gender or members of the other gender.
It is who we are emotionally, romantically, and sexually attracted to.
So a bisexual's sexual orientation is toward both genders etc
What are the 3 main reasons using the term homosexual to refer to lesbians and gay men is problematic?
1. Has been associated with negative stereotypes such as deviance, mental illness, and criminal behave
2. Emphasizes sexual behaviour rather than identity
3. Ambiguous because it has often been used just for gay men
So better to use terms lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual
What is pansexuals?
So open to relationship with people of any sex, gender, or gender identity
Roughly, what are the %s of people considering themselves to be:
What are three ways of conceptualizing homosexuality and heterosexuality?
1. Typology (homo or hetero)
2. Kinseys Continuoum (0-6, Abady's a 6)
3. Two-dimensional scheme (Homo on y axis, hetero on x axis, asexual bottom left of course)
What is homonegativity?
Negative attitudes abd behaviours toward gay men and lesbians, sometimes called anti-gay prejudice or sexual prejudice
What is heterosexism?
Belief that everyone is heterosexual and heterosexuality is the only legitimate, acceptable, and healthy way for people to be; homosexuality is denigrated
Are hate crimes to LGB youth in canada rare and isolated incidents?
What are covert homosexuals? Opposite?
Gay man or lesbian who is in the closet, and keeps sexual orientation a secret
Opposite is overt homosexual, so out of the closet
Advocates of the stage approach to coming out argue that identity development typically proceeds in what six stages?
1. Identity Confusion
(Confused against assumed hetero identity)
2. Identity Comparison
(I might be gay, maybe feel alienated because comfortable hetero identity lost)
3. Identity Tolerance
(I'm probably gay, I'm going to seek contact with the gay subculture)
4. Identity Acceptance
(I'm totes gay, and accepts identity rather than tolerate)
5. Identity Pride
(Dichotomizes world into straight (bad people) and gays (good people)
6. Identity Synthesis
(No longer us vs. them, synthesize public and private sexual identities)
Describe stage approach to coming out
contact LGB community
practice new interpersonal skills
then integration when fully functioning member of society and is able to maintain long-term committed relationship
What is the medical model?
A theoretical model in psychiatry in which mental problems are thought of as sickness or mental illness; the problems in turn are often thought to be due to biological factors
What is the therapy designed to turn LGBs into heterosexuals called (two names)?
1. Conversion therapy
2. Reparative Therapy
What are the genetic factors to being gay?
Well with twin studies, identical had more gay brother than non-identical, of non-identical had more than adopted. So the more shared blood the more chance both gay or both straight. So yup! It has effect, but not 100% effect
What are some well-documented brain differences between gays and straights?
Currently there are no well-documneted brain differences between gays and straights
Of the biological theories, which one has the most supporting evidence?
Genetic theory has the most supporting evidence
What are 4 biological theories about what causes homosexuality?
1. Genetic Factors
2. Prenatal factors
3. brain factors
4. Hormonal factors
What is deprivation homosexuality?
Same-sex sexual activity that occurs in certain situations, such as prisons, when people are deprived of their regular mixed-sex activity
So unlike gender identity, which seems to be fixed in the preschool years, sexual identity ______
So unlike gender identity, which seems to be fixed in the preschool years, sexual identity continues to evolve
Are the majority of lgb people like what right now?
Sorry for the weirdly phrased question, the answer is that the majority are in steady romantic relationship
Across geographics, what do many lgb cultures share?
Well they share a lot of culture, and do things such as pride parade
Are kids growing up in LGB families disadvantaged?
Nope, no supportive evidence
What do learning theorists say about sex drive?
That sex drive is undifferentiated and is channelled through experience, into hetersexuality or homosexuality
What does Bem's Interactionist Theory propose about homosexuality?
That homosexuality results from the influence of biological factors on temperament, which in turn influences whether a child plays with boys or girls. The less familiar (more exotic) gender is associated with sexual arousal.
How do gay men and lesbians differ? (2 things)
1. Women more likely to be bisexual
2. theories effective for explaining mens sexual orientation are not supported for women
What may be the most normal orientation?
Bisexuality may be more normal than exclusive hetero or homo
What is GLBTI?
What are 3 myths about sexual orientation?
1. Dichotomous model of sexual orientation exists
2. Gender is the primary criterion for sexual partner selection
3. Sexual orientation is immutable
What does the dichotomous model of sexual orientation say?
That someone has to be exclusively hetero or exclusively homo
How do traditional gender role attitudes influence attitudes toward sexual minorities?
Traditional gender role attitudes negatively influence attitudes toward sexual minorities
The most negative feelings toward sexual minorities are from who?
Those who feel homosexuality is learned
What is generally accepted about people and biseuxality?
That most people are bisexual, either latent or manifest
The vast majority of pedophiles are who?
% of men and % of women have had same gender sexual experience since puberty?
9% of men and 4.3% of women have had same gender sexual experience since puberty?
% of men and % of women reported feeling desire for the same sex
44% of men and 59% of women reported feeling desire for the same sex
The likelihood of being gay increases with number of what?
Older brothers, and the fraternal birth order effect accounts for 1/7 of prevalence of homosexuality in men
Only true if they are right handed
What is a bigot?
Prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from their own
What is cultural heterosexism?
What is psychological heterosexism?
What is cultural heterosexism?
Stigamtization, denial etc of non-heterosexuals in cultural institutions ranging from church to courthouse
What is psychological heterosexism?
Personal internalization of this worldview, which is expressed as antigay prejudice
What are 5 motives for homophobia?
2. Repressed envy
3. Fear of being homosexuality
4. Threat to personal or societal values
5. Threat to masculine norms
Sexual identity is inextricably linked with what?
Erotica, desire, and motivation is highly ____ within society
Erotica, desire, and motivation is highly MEDIATED within society
What feels individual or natural has been produced and actively manifest...
over time, history, discourse, society
% of gay or bi men have attempted suicide
22-40% of gay or bi men have attempted suicide