Chapter 14: Sociological Theories (Social Structural Theories) Pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 14: Sociological Theories (Social Structural Theories) Pt. 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14: Sociological Theories (Social Structural Theories) Pt. 2 Deck (49):
1

What is the primary focus of Walter Miller’s “Focal Concerns” theory?

lower class boys

2

According to Walter Miller’s “Focal Concerns” lower class boys are more prone to crime than middle class boys. Why is this?

because they place more importance on particular values that are associated with crime

3

What are the “focal concerns” or values of lower class boys according to "Focal Concerns" theory?

(1) toughness
(2) trouble
(3) smartness
(4) excitement
(5) fate
(6) autonomy

4

Which "focal concern" is this: having physical strength,

toughness

5

Which "focal concern" is this: a willingness to fight

toughness

6

Which "focal concern" is this: being soft or sentimental is devalued

toughness

7

Which "focal concern" is this: high value is placed on getting in and staying out of sticky situations

trouble

8

Which "focal concern" is this: being streetwise and able to outfox or outcome someone else

smartness

9

Which "focal concern" is this: a belief that life is guided by things outside of your control

fate

10

Which "focal concern" is this: the search for fun to liven up an otherwise boring life 

excitement

11

Which "focal concern" is this: so these teenagers and young adults take more chances to get lucky or “hit the jackpot”

fate

12

Which "focal concern" is this: high value is placed on personal freedom

autonomy

13

Which "focal concern" is this: being “your own man” and not being under the control

autonomy

14

What is the problem with Walter Miller’s “Focal Concerns”?

regardless of class and gender many teens exhibit these characteristics

15

What is a “subculture of violence”?

interpersonal violence is an expression of subcultural norms and values

16

The "__________ ___ _______" was extended to account for the high rates of violence in southern U.S. states.

subculture of violence

17

The "subculture of violence" was extended to account for the high rates of ________ in _________ U.S. states.

violence
southern

18

True or False: In some cultures, violence is an expected, tolerated, and even demand means of settling disputes.

True

19

In some cultures, violence is an expected, tolerated, and even demand means of settling disputes. How does this type of mindset develop?

this is learned at the how by how parents discipline their kids and how they are childhood play is responded to

20

Who created “subculture of violence” and when?

initially developed by Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracutti in the late 1960’s

21

What is the “code of the street”?

an unwritten and informal set of rules that have emerged in inner-city communities as a response to various social problems

22

Who created the term “code of the street”?

Elijah Anderson in the late 90’s

23

How is the “code of the street” developed?

violence is learned and reinforced in particular geographical areas and within particular cultural traditions

24

Inner-city kids learn to “_____ ______” and act like “decent folks”.

"code switch"

25

Inner-city kids learn to “code switch” and act like “_______ _____”.

"decent folks"

26

Violence is both ________ and ___________ by the normative rules of engagement and disengagement that underlie this “code of the street”.

enabled
constrained

27

Violence is both enabled and constrained by the _________ ______ of engagement and disengagement that underlie this “code of the street”.

normative rules

28

Violence is both enabled and constrained by the normative rules of ____________ and ____________ that underlie this “code of the street”.

engagement
disengagement

29

What type of street verbalizations reflect the “code of the street”?

-“watch your back”
-"protect yourself”
-“don’t punk out”
-“respect yourself”
-“if someone disses you, you gotta straighten them out”

30

Why is violence relatively common in inner-city areas?

they are staging areas for demonstrating, maintaining, and/or enhancing one’s reputation as someone who can handle themselves and shouldn’t be messed with

31

Who created the Anomie/Strain theory?

Robert Merton

32

What is Merton’s Anomie/Strain Theory?

attributes high crime rates directly to the social structure and culture of this society

33

Why does society have strain?

(1) American society places enormous cultural value on the achievement of material success, but the legitimate social structural or institutional means of achieving this goal are limited

(2) We have a strain between cultural goals and structural means of achieving them (especially in the lower class)

34

What is “anomie”?

contradiction between the cultural message and the social structure of society

35

Who experiences “anomie”?

may be experienced by any social group

36

What are the various modes of adaption to this anomic friction between the cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them?

(1) conformity
(2) innovation
(3) ritualism
(4) retreatism
(5) rebellion

37

Which mode of adaption to anomic friction is this:
the acceptance of both the goals and means

conformity

38

Which mode of adaption to anomic friction is this:
the acceptance of the goals of success but rejection of the legitimate means of achieving it 

innovation

39

Which mode of adaption to anomic friction is this:
the rejection of both goals and means

ritualism

40

Which mode of adaption to anomic friction is this:
the rejection of both goals and means

retreatism

41

Which mode of adaption to anomic friction is this:
replacing the goals and means with new ones

rebellion

42

What is Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Theory?

differential opportunity for both legitimate and illegitimate pathways to living the American Dream

43

______ often provide illegitimate opportunities.

Gangs

44

What are the different type of gangs?

(1) criminal gangs
(2) conflict gangs
(3) retreatist gangs

45

What are the characteristics of criminal gangs?

-provide its recruits some monetary gain through organized criminal activities 

-gang members have a particular skill that provides a limited opportunity for them to achieve some material success

46

What are the characteristics of conflict gangs?

-provide only a very small number of juveniles and young adults access to material success by being the “tough guy” or “enforcer”

-only a small number of enforcers are needed for any criminal organization

47

True or False: the illegal opportunities for success through conflict gangs are extremely limited

True

48

What are the characteristics of retreatist gangs?

-involve juvenile and young adults who are called “double losers”

-criminal organizations provide no illegitimate opportunities for them and they are blocked from achieving success goals through legitimate avenues 
-they retreat, by getting high and drunk because of this failure on both domains 

49

Because this theory presumes that most people want to live American dream of economic success what does it suggest?

it suggests that the simpler pathway to a crime-free society is by providing greater legitimate opportunity for everyone

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