Chapter 14 - Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Terms Deck (33):
1

demography

the study of the size, composition, (growth or shrinkage), and distribution of human populations

2

Malthus theorem

an observation by Thomas Malthus that although the food supply increases arithmetically (from 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 and so on), population grows geometrically (from 2 to 4 to 8 to 16 and so forth)

3

exponential growth curve

a pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, showing a steep acceleration in the later stages

4

demographic transition

a three-stage historical process of change in the size of populations: first, high birth rates and high death rates; second, high birth rates and low death rates; and third, low birth rates and low death rates; a fourth stage of population shrinkage in which deaths outnumber births has made its appearance in the Most Industrialized Nations

5

population shrinkage

the process by which a country’s population becomes smaller because its birth rate and immigration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate

6

population pyramid

a graph that represents the age and sex of a population (see Figure 20.7)

7

demographic variables

the three factors that change the size of a population: fertility, mortality, and net migration

8

fertility rate

the number of children that the average woman bears

9

fecundity

the number of children that women are capable of bearing

10

crude birth rate

the annual number of live births per 1,000 population

11

crude death rate

the annual number of deaths per 1,000 population

12

net migration rate

the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population

13

basic demographic equation

the growth rate equals births minus deaths plus net migration

14

growth rate

the net change in a population after adding births, subtracting deaths, and either adding or subtracting net migration; can result in a negative number

15

zero population growth

women bearing only enough children to reproduce the population

16

urbanization

the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities and has a growing influence on the culture

17

city

a place in which a large number of people are permanently based and do not produce their own food

18

metropolis

a central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs

19

megalopolis

an urban area consisting of at least two metropolises and their many suburbs

20

megacity

a city of 10 million or more residents

21

metropolitan statistical area (MSA)

a central city and the urbanized counties adjacent to it

22

edge city

a large clustering of service facilities and residential areas near highway intersections that provides a sense of place to people who live, shop, and work there

23

gentrification

middle-class people moving into a rundown area of a city, displacing the poor as they buy and restore homes

24

suburbanization

the migration of people from the city to the suburbs

25

suburb

a community adjacent to a city

26

human ecology

Robert Park’s term for the relationship between people and their environment (such as land and structures); also known as urban ecology

27

invasion–succession cycle

the process of one group of people displacing a group whose racial–ethnic or social class characteristics differ from their own

28

alienation

Marx’s term for workers’ lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by workers being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product—this leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness; others use the term in the general sense of not feeling a part of something

29

redlining

a decision by the officers of a financial institution not to make loans in a particular area

30

disinvestment

the withdrawal of investments by financial institutions, which seals the fate of an urban area

31

deindustrialization

the process of industries moving out of a country or region

32

urban renewal

the rehabilitation of a rundown area, which usually results in the displacement of the poor who are living in that area

33

enterprise zone

the use of economic incentives in a designated area to encourage investment