Chapter 14 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Vocabulary Deck (38):
1

digestion

food being broken down

2

absorption

passage of a substance through a membrane such as skin or mucosa, into blood

3

metabolism

complex process by which food is used by a living organism

4

Lumen

the hollow space within a tube

5

mucosa

inner most layer of the digestive tract

6

submucosa

connective tissue layer below the mucosa containing blood vessels and nerves in the wall of the digestive tract

7

muscularis

two layers of muscle surrounding the digestive tube

8

peristalsis

wavelike, rhythmic contractions of the stomach and intestines that move food material along the digestive tract

9

serosa

outermost covering of the digestive tract; covers the digestive tube

10

mesentery

a large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity

11

Uvula

cone- shaped process hanging down from the soft palate that help prevent food and liquid from entering the nasal cavities

12

papillae

the small nipple-shaped elevations

13

vallate

the largest type of pappilae

14

mastication

chewing of food

15

cuspids

canine teeth

16

tricuspids

molars

17

bolus

chewed food that is turned into a small mass

18

crown

the part of the teeth you can see

19

periodontal membrane

a fibrous membrane that lines each tooth

20

parotoid glands

the largest of the salivary glands, lie just below and in front of each ear at the angle of the jaw

21

salivary amylase

digestive enzymes

22

hiatial hernia

reflux of the stomach contents into the lower portion of the esophagus

23

chyme

stomach fluid

24

peristalsis

propels food down the digestive tract

25

Rugae

when the stomach is empty, its lining lies in the folds

26

fundus, body and pylorus

the three divisions of the stomach

27

pyloric sphincter

partial digestion occurs after food is held in the stomach

28

lesser curvature

the upper border of the stomach

29

greater curvature

lower left border of the stomach

30

duodenum, jejenum, ileum

different sections of the small intestine

31

plicae

the folds of the small intestine

32

villi

tiny 'fingers' of the small intestine

33

bile

substance secreted by the liver

34

emulsify

in digestion when bile breaks up fats

35

CCK

hormone that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder

36

jaundice

a yellow skin discoloration

37

mechanical digestion

chewing with your teeth and toung

38

chemical digestion

chemical reactions using saliva ezymes and stomach acid