Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (43):
1

What tracts continue in the brainstem without alteration?

corticospinal tract

2

What tracts leave the brainstem?

reticulospinal tract

3

What tracts synapse in the brainstem nuclei?

corticobrainstem

4

What two sections is the brainstem divided into longitudinally?

basilar and tegmentum

5

What is the tectum involved in?

reflexive control of intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscles and in movements of the head

6

Where is the basilar section located?

anteriorly

7

What does the basilar section contain?

predominantly motor system structures

8

What descending axons from the cerebral cortex does the basilar contain?

corticospinal, corticobulbar, corticopontine, corticoreticular tracts

9

What motor nuclei does the basilar contain?

substantia nigra, pontine nuclei, inferior olive

10

Where is the tegmentum located?

posteriorly

11

What does the tegmentum contain?

reticular formation
Sensory nuclei and ascending sensory tracts
Cranial nerve nuclei
The medial longitudinal fasciculus

12

What does the medial longitudinal fasciculus do?

coordinates eye and head movements

13

What does the reticular formation include?

the reticular nuclei, their connections, and ascending and descending reticular pathways

14

What does the reticular formation do?

Integrates sensory and cortical information.
Regulates somatic motor activity, autonomic function, and consciousness.
Modulates nociceptive (pain) information

15

Where are the neurons that produce dopamine?

midbrain
substantia nigra
ventral tegmental

16

What does activation of VTA affect?

the ventral striatum producing feelings of pleasure and reward

17

Where is the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) located?

caudal midbrain

18

What does the PPN influence?

movement

19

How does the PPN influence movement?

Globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus
Limbic system
Reticular areas that give rise to reticulospinal tracts

20

Where are cells that produce serotonin?

found along the midline of the brainstem in raphe nuclei.

21

Where does the raphe nuclei supply serotonin to?

to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, tectum, cerebellum and spinal cord (rahpespinaltract)

22

What are the sources of most norepinephrine in the CNS?

Locus Ceruleus and Medial Reticular Zone

23

What do the ascending axons of the locus ceruleus do?

provides ability to direct attention

24

What do the descending axons of the locus ceruleus do?

form the ceruleospinal tract as part of non-specific UMNs

25

What does the medial reticular zone do?

regulates autonomic functions – cardiovascular, respiratory and visceral

26

Consciousness:

awareness of self and surroundings

27

Consciousness system:

governs alertness, sleep, and attention

28

What are the brainstem components of the consciousness system?

reticular formation and its ascending reticular activating (ARA) system

29

Pons:

processes motor information from the cerebral cortex and forwards the information to the cerebellum

30

Midbrain:

controls many functions such as visual and auditory systems as well as eye movements

31

Medulla

controlling head movements, coordinating swallowing and helping regulate cardiovascular, respiratory, and visceral activity

32

What part of the medulla contain cranial nerve structures?

lower medulla

33

What does the medullary neuronal network do?

contributes to control of head movements
coordinates swallowing
helps regulate cardiovascular, respiratory, and visceral activity

34

What tracts synapse in the pons?

corticopontine and some corticobrainstem

35

What processes sensory information from the face (CNV)?

pontine CN

36

What does the midbrain do?

the diencephalon and the pons

37

What regions is the midbrain divided into?

Basis pedunculi
Tegmentum
Tectum

38

What joins the third and fourth ventricles?

Cerebral aqueduct, a small canal through the midbrain

39

What does the pretectal area involved in?

the pupillary, consensual, and accommodation reflexes of the eye.

40

What does the inferior colliculi do?

relay auditory information from the cochlear nuclei to the superior colliculus and to the medial geniculate body of the thalamus

41

What does the superior colloculi do?

involved in reflexive eye and head movements

42

Summary of cerebellar functions:

Coordination of movement
Motor planning
Cognitive functions, including rapid shifts of attention

43

What is the brain stem responsible for?

basic involuntary functions as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure