Flashcards in Chapter 15: COPD and Asthma Deck (16):
chronic inflammation of the
bronchioles, causing swelling of the bronchial mucosa,
reducing the caliber of the bronchi and bronchioles,
increasing bronchial secretions
What are the 2 leading causes of chronic bronchitis?
1) Cigarette smoking
2) Air pollution/cooking fumes
What is the pathogenesis of emphysema in COPD?
1) Inflammatory swelling of bronchial mucosa
2) Leukocytes accumulate in the bronchioles and alveoli, releasing proteolytic enzymes that attach the elastic fibers of lung's structural support
3) Persistent coughing and increased intrabronchial pressure causes rupture and convert alveoli into large, cystic air spaces.
4) Lungs lose elasticity and cannot expel air or excess secretions as easily.
5) Retention of secretions predisposes to pulmonary infections and worsens chronic bronchitis.
True or false: COPD causes respiratory alkalosis.
False; causes respiratory acidosis.
True or false; Lung reduction surgery (to remove damaged lobes) has been shown to be a successful treatment option for emphysema.
How can the progression of emphysema be slowed?
1) Stop smoking
2) Promote drainage of bronchial secretions
3) Improve pulmonary ventilation
4) Decrease infections.
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis
Disease in which the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles are enlarged and their walls destroyed
Spasmodic contraction of smooth muscles in walls of
smaller bronchi and bronchioles that occurs in periodic episodes
What are the symptoms of asthma?
dyspnea and wheezing
True or false: The effects of asthma are greater on inspiration than expiration.
False; greater on expiration
What usually precipitates asthma attacks?
Allergens (interact with IgE on mast cells that then release chemicals to trigger bronchospasm)
How do you treat asthma?
1) Bronchodilators and steroids
2) Drugs to block release of mediators from mast cells
True or false: Asthma tends to worsen with age.
False; improves with age
True or false: Asthma typically appears before age 18.