Chapter 15 - Feed and Protect Me Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Feed and Protect Me Deck (106):
1

Normal cell size

Normocytic

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Larger-than-normal cell size

Macrocytic

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Smaller-than-normal cell size

Microcytic

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Condition of irregular cells; clinically means varied shapes of erythrocytes

Poikilocytosis

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Condition of unequal cell size; excessive variation in RBC size

Anisocytosis

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Normal RBC color (has area of central pallor of normal size)

Normochromic

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Less-than-normal color (has enlarged area of central pallor)

Hypochromic

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More-than-normal color (term is not commonly used)

Hyperchromic

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"Condition of many colors" that appears as an overall blue tint of Wright-stained RBCs due to shrinking of the cell membrane; indicates slight immaturity of the erythrocyte

Polychromasia

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RBCs that are arranged like stacks of coins on the peripheral blood smear; may be artifact or may be normal in species such as cats and horses

Rouleaux

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Clumping of RBCs due to the presence of an antibody directed against RBC surface antigens that forms a latticework that links them together

Agglutination

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Class of "agranulocytic" leukocyte that contains a diverse set of cells including those that can directly attack specific pathogens or produce antibodies

Lymphocyte

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Class of "agranulocytic" leukocyte that has a phagocytic function and paticipates in the inflammatory response

Monocyte

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Class of granulocytic leukocyte that has a phagocytic function (mainly against bacteria); also called polymorphonuclear (multishaped nucleus) leukocyte, or PMN

Neutrophil

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Class of granulocytic leukocyte that detoxifies allergens and controls parasitic infections by damaging parasite membranes

Eosinophils

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Class of granulocytic leukocyte that promotes the inflammatory response and contains histamine in its cytoplasmic granules

Basophil

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Blood specimen for microscopic examination in which blood is spread thinly across a microscope slide and typically stained

Blood smear

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Sample of bone marrow obtained by needle aspiration for examination of cells. Samples are taken from long bones, ribs, or the sternum.

Bone marrow biopsy

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Blood condition of less-than-normal levels of red blood cells and/or hemoglobin

Anemia

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Deficiency in the number of basophils in the blood

Basopenia

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Elevation in the number of basophils in the blood

Basophilia

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Any abnormal condition of the blood

Dyscrasia

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Accumulation of fluid in the intercellular space

Edema

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Deficiency in the number of eosinophils in the blood

Eosinopenia

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Elevation in the number of eosinophils in the blood

Eosinophilia

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Abnormal increase in RBCs

Erythrocytosis

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Material that has escaped from blood vessels and is high in protein, cells, or solid materials derived from cells

Exudate

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Removing and destroying RBCs

Hemolytic

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Breaking down of blood cells

Hemolysis

30

Hereditary condition of deficient blood coagulation

Hemophilia

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Loss of blood (usually in a short period of time)

Hemorrhage

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Act of controlling blood or bleeding

Hemostasis

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Instrument used to control bleeding

Hemostat

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Blood condition of abnormally high albumin levels

Hyperalbuminemia

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Excess blood in a part; engorgement

Hyperemia

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Blood condition of abnormally high fat levels; more accurately means abnormally high fat levels caused by fat metabolism

Hyperlipidemia

37

Serum that has yellow pigmentation that is suggestive of hyperbilirubinemia

Icteric serum

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Common term for an alteration in the distribution of leukocytes in which there are increases in band forms, usually in response to bacterial infection

Left shift

39

Elevation in the number of malignant WBCs

Leukemia

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Elevation in the number of WBC

Leukocytosis

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Deficiency of WBCs

Leukopenia (sometimes called Leukocytopenia)

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Excessive amount of fats in the blood

Lipemia

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Fats from blood that have settled in the serum. Clinically the serum appears cloudy and white

Lipemic serum

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Elevated numbers of lymphocytes in the blood

Lymphocytosis

45

Deficiency of lymphocytes in the blood

Lymphopenia

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Deficiency of monocytes in the blood

Monocytopenia

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Elevated numbers of monocytes in the blood

Monocytosis

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Hematologic disorder characterized clinically and morphologically by ineffective hematopoiesis that results in some form of cytopenia such as anemia, neutropenia, and/or thrombocytopenia.

Myelodysplasia

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Deficiency of neutrophils in the blood

Neutropenia

50

Elevated numbers of neutrophils in the blood

Neutrophilia

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Deficiency of all types of blood cells

Pancytopenia

52

Condition of engulfing or eating cells

Phagocytosis

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Condition of many cells; clinically means excessive erythrocytes

Polycythemia

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Blood condition in which pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria) and their toxins are present

Septicemia

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Abnormal decrease in the number of clotting cells

Thrombocytopenia

56

Elevation in the number of clotting cells

Thrombocytosis

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Material that has passed through a membrane and is high in fluidity and low in protein, cells, or solid materials derived from cells

Transudate

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Immunoglobulin found in the mucous membrane lining of intestines, bronchi, saliva, and tears; protects those areas

IgA

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Immunoglobulin found in large amounts on the surface of B cells; unknown function

IgD

60

Immunoglobulin found in lungs, skin, and cells of mucous membranes; provides defense against the environment and is involved with allergies

IgE

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Immunoglobulin synthesized in response to invading germs such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses; most abundant antibody and only class that can cross the placenta

IgG

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Immunoglobulin found in circulating fluids; first immunoglobulin produced when antigens invade and provides protection in the earliest stages of infection

IgM

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Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity; directly attack the invading antigen. This type of immunity is most effective against viruses that infect body cells, cancer cells, and foreign tissue cells.

T cells

64

Lymphocytes responsible for humoral immunity; produce antibodies that react with the antigen or substances produced by the antigen.
This type of immunity is most effective against bacteria, viruses that are outside body cells, and toxins. It's also involved in allergic reactions.

B cells

65

Substance that the body regards as foreign (such as a virus, bacterium, or toxin)

Antigen

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Disease-fighting protein produced by the body in response to the presence of a specific antigen

Antibody

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Not susceptible

Resistant

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Genetic transmission of characteristics form parent to offspring

Heredity

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Administration of antigen (vaccine) to stimulate a protective immune response against a specific infectious agent

Vaccination, also called immunization

70

Preparation of pathogen (live, weakened, or killed) or a portion of pathogen that is administered to stimulate a protective immune response against the pathogen

Vaccine

71

Reproduction

Multiplication

72

To slow or stop

Inhibit

73

Able to cause disease due to debilitation when disease normally would not be produced

Opportunistic

74

Weakened

Debilitated

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Overreaction by the body to a particular antigen

Allergy, also called hypersensitivity

76

Substance capable of inducing an allergic reaction

Allergen

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Severe response to a foreign substance.
Signs develop acutely and may include swelling, blockage of airways, tachycardia, and ptylism

Anaphylaxis

78

Disorder in which the body makes antibodies directed against itself

Autoimmune disease

79

Reduction or decrease in the state of resistance to disease

Immunosuppression

80

Chemical that prevents or reduces the body's normal reaction to disease

Immunosuppressant

81

Inflammation of the lymph nodes

Lymphadenitis, also called swollen glands

82

Disease of the lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy

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Abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass (usually benign)

Lymphangioma

84

Enlargement of the spleen

Splenomegaly

85

Surgical removal of the spleen

Splenectomy

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Surgical removal of the thymus

Thymectomy

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Removal of tissue to examine

Biopsy

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Records of ionizing radiation used to visualize internal body structures

Radiographs

89

Collections of cells on a glass slide pressed against a part of the mass. The slide is then examined under the microscope.

Touch preps

90

Malignant growth of epithelial glandular tissue

Adenocarcinoma

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Neoplasm composed of immature undifferentiated cells

Blastoma

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Benign neoplasm composed of newly formed blood vessels

Hemangioma

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Malignant tumor of vascular tissue

Hemangiosarcoma

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General term for neoplasm composed of lymphoid tissue (usually malignant)

Lymphoma, also called lymphosarcoma

95

Malignant growth of tissue mast cells (cells that release histamine)

Mast cell tumor (abbrev. MCT)
They are associated with vomiting, anorexia, and various signs depending on the tissue involved

96

Neoplasm composed of melanin-pigmented cells

Melanoma

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Malignant neoplasm composed of bone marrow

Myeloma

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Malignant neoplasm composed of muscle

Myosarcoma

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Tumor of connective tissue

Myxoma

100

Malignant neoplasm composed of nervous tissue origin

Neuroblastoma

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Malignant neoplasm composed of bone

Osteosarcoma

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Malignant tumor developed from squamous epithelial tissue

Squamous cell carcinoma (abbrev. SCC)

103

Treatment of neoplasm through the use of chemicals

Chemotherapy

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Surgical removal of a lymph node

Lymphadenectomy

105

Treatment of neoplasm through the use of X-rays

Radiation therapy

106

Removal of the entire mass in addition to some normal tissue to ensure that the entire mass is removed

Surgical excision