Chapter 15: Lung Structure and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: Lung Structure and Function Deck (25):
1

Largest of the tubes that conduct air into and out of the lungs.

Bronchi

2

Bronchial system

1) Bronchi
2) Bronchioles
3) Terminal bronchioles
4) Respiratory bronchioles

3

What are the smallest bronchioles?

Terminal bronchioles

4

Small air sacs where O2 and CO2 exchange between the air
and pulmonary capillaries.

Alveoli

5

What two types of alveolar pneumocytes line alveoli?

1) Flat squamous cells
2) Larger secretory cells that produce surfactant

6

What secretion is produced by secretory cells in the alveoli?

Surfactant

7

Larger segments of the lungs

lobes

8

Smaller units (than lobes) of lungs

Lobules

9

How many lung lobes are there?

5 (2 on L, 3 on R)

10

Structures deriving from a single terminal bronchiole.

Acinus

11

A small group of terminal bronchioles and the respiratory units arising from them.

Lobule

12

True or false: Alveoli contain macrophages that remove inhaled materials.

True; removes dust, pollen, etc.

13

What lines the respiratory passages?

Ciliated epithelium

14

Functional unit of the lung; formed by a cluster of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and sacs, and alveoli all derived from a single terminal bronchiole

Acinus

15

What are the 2 functions of the respiratory system?

1) Ventilation
2) Gas exchange

16

What causes respiration?

Bellows action of ribs and diaphragm (lungs change in volume in response to changes in size of the thoracic cage

17

During inhalation, what happens to the ribs and diaphragm?

1) Diaphragm descends
2) Ribs more horizontal

18

What happens to the ribs and diaphragm during exhalation?

1) Diaphragm rises
2) Ribs more vertical

19

What causes gas diffusion between blood, tissues, and alveoli?

Differences in partial pressures

20

The part of total atmospheric pressure exerted by a gas

Partial pressure

21

What are the requirements for efficient gas exchange?

1) Large capillary surface area in contact with alveolar membrane
2) Unimpeded diffusion across alveolar membrane
3) Normal pulmonary blood flow
4) Normal pulmonary alveoli

22

What condition can impede efficient gas exchange from the alveoli to the blood by decreasing the capillary surface areas in contact with alveolar membranes?

Emphysema (it destroys septa, making large alveoli with less capillary surface for diffusion

23

What conditions can impede diffusion across alveolar membranes?

1) fibrosis (septa thickened and scarred)
2) ARDS (thickened alveolar membrane)
3) PNA (alveoli filed with fluid and inflammatory exudate, so less air enters)

24

What conditions can impede normal pulmonary blood flow?

Pulmonary embolism (blocking large pulmonary artery or fat/foreign material blocking capillary network)

25

What conditions can impede normal alveoli?

1) Atelectasis (accumulated pleural fluid compresses lungs/colapses alveoli)
2) ARDS (alveoli may collapse)

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