Chapter 15: Neurologic Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: Neurologic Emergencies Deck (73):
1

Stroke is a common cause of brain disorder that:

is potentially treatable

2

When assessing a scene, do not be distracted by the seriousness of the situation or by frightened family members who want you to rush. Look first for:

threats to your safety

3

The time of onset during a suspected stroke is critical because it helps determine:

whether the patient is a candidate for treatment with clot dissolving drugs

4

Petit mal seizures are also called:

absence seizures

5

Often, a patient may have experienced a warning prior to the seizure event. The warning is referred to as a(n):

aura

6

In some situations, the postical state may be characterized by hemiparesis or:

weakness on one side of the body, resembling a stroke.

7

In geriatric patients, you should consider a headache as:

potentially serious

8

A patient who almost always has an altered or decreased level of consciousness usually is suffering from:

hypoglycemia

9

Treat stroke and altered mental status (AMS) in children:

the same way you do for adults

10

You should always do at least three neurologic tests on patients you suspect of having a stroke. Which of the following is not correct?
a. Test their speech.
b. Test facial movement.
c. Test arm movement.
d. Check blood sugar if a glucose meter is available.

d. Check blood sugar if a glucose meter is available.

11

Headaches can be caused by which of the following conditions?
a. stroke
b. tumors
c. sinusitis
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

12

More than 80% of strokes are ________ strokes.

ischemic

13

In the mnemonic TIPS AEIOU, the first "I" stands for:

infection

14

more ____ than ____ have strokes

more men than women have strokes

15

but strokes are more fatal in

women

16

___ and _____ may also occur when there is a disorder in the brain

seizures and AMS

17

_____ can result from:
- head injury
- brain tumor
- metabolic problem
- genetic predisposition

seizures

18

the ___ is the body's computer

brain

19

list the three major parts of the brain

cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem

20

the cerebrum is divided into ____ which control _____

left and right hemispheres which control activities on opposite sides of the body

21

what do the following parts of the cerebrum control
- back
- left
- middle
- front

- back: sight
- left: speech
- middle: movement and touch
- front: thought and emotion

22

the cerebellum controls

muscle and body coordination

23

the brainstem controls

basic functions like breathing, BP, swallowing, pupil constriction

24

messages sent from the brain travel through the

nerves

25

the brain is very sensitive to changes in ___, ____, and ___

temperature, O2, and glucose

26

disorders caused by the heart and lungs will...

affect the entire brain

27

problem mainly in the brain will...

only affect that part of the brain

28

____ is one of the most common complaints you will hear from your patients in terms of pain

headache

29

a ____/____ headache requires assessment and transport

sudden/severe

30

_____, _____, _____ are the most common types of headaches and are not medical emergencies

sinus, tension, migraine

31

migraine headaches are thought to be caused by

changes in the BV in the base of the brain

32

the ____ is the event and the ____ is the effect

CVA = event
stroke = effect

33

a CVA or stroke is an ____ of the ____ to the ____ that results in loss of _____

a CVA or stroke is an interruption of the flow of blood to the brain that results in loss of brain function

34

time is

brain

35

when the brain lacks oxygen cells ____ and _____

stop working and begin to die

36

what are the two main types of stroke

ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

37

____ is a direct blockage of blood flow through the cerebral arteries

ischemic stroke

38

ischemic strokes account for ___% of strokes

80%

39

the blockage of an ischemic stroke is from ___ or ____

embolism or thrombosis

40

____ is when a BV ruptures, causing INC pressure in the brain and subsequent brain damage

hemorrhagic stroke

41

hemorrhagic strokes make up ___ % of strokes

10-20

42

people at a high risk for hemorrhagic stroke have

very high BP

43

cerebral hemorrhages are often

fatal

44

a hemorrhagic stroke in healthy young people is called a

berry anuerysm

45

with hemorrhagic shock patients may experience

a sudden severe headache

46

____ when stroke symptoms go away on their own within less than 24 hours

TIA

47

TIA's are known as

mini strokes

48

TIA's may be

a warning sign of a larger stroke to come

49

_____ is lack of muscle coordination (sign of stroke)

ataxia

50

____ is speech disorders (sign of stroke)

dysphasia

51

____ is slurred speech (sign of stroke)

dysarthria

52

a stroke in the L hemisphere may cayse

aphasia

53

aphasia is the inability to

produce or understand speech

54

a stroke in the r hemisphere may cause

paralysis to the left side of the body and vice versa

55

if there is bleeding in the brain the patient will have very high

BP

56

three conditions that may mimic stroke

hypoglycemia, postictal state, subdural or epidural bleeding

57

postictal state is a period after a ____ that is ____ min and characterized ___ and ____

period after a seizure that is 5-30 min and characterized by labored breathing and AMS

58

most seizures last

3-5 min

59

seizures make up ___% of EMS calls

30%

60

a ____ is unconsciousness and generalized severe twitching of all muscles

generalized seizure

61

generalized seizures result from ____ from large areas of the brain

abnormal discharge

62

2 subcategories of partial seizures

simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures

63

with a ____ there is sudden loss of consciousness, chaotic muscle movemengt, apnea, and is preceded by an aura

tonic-clonic seizure

64

tonic is

bilateral muscle rigidity

65

clonic is

muscle contraction and relaxation

66

____ last for just seconds, after which the patient fully recovers

absence seizure

67

seizures that continue every few minutes without the person regaining consciousness or last longer than 30 minutes

status epilepticus

68

4 common causes of AMS

hypoglycemia, overdose, intoxication, poisoning

69

signs and symptoms of AMS vary from ___ to ____

confusion to coma

70

name of the stroke assessment used during the secondary assessment

cincinnatti prehospital stroke scale

71

cincinnatti prehospital stroke scale tests for

speech, facial movement, arm movement

72

all patients with AMS need a

GCS score

73

vital signs with a stroke include

DEC HR, erratic respirations, INC BP, changes in pupil size and reactivity