Chapter 15 - Ocular Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Ocular Toxicology Deck (28):
0

The first site of action for the eye after exposure to a toxicant is the...

A. Cornea

B. Tear film

C. Sclera

D. Conjunctiva

B. Tear film

1

All of the following statements are true regarding the corneal stroma except...

A. It makes up 90% of the corneal thickness

B. Water-soluble chemicals easily penetrate it

C. It can act as a reservoir for toxicants

D. It is composed of water, collagen and glycosaminoglycans

B. Water-soluble chemicals easily penetrate it

2

A systemic water-soluble toxicant orally ingested would have the least exposure to the...

A. Anterior surface of the lens

B. corneal endothelium

C. Aqueous humor

D. Corneal epithelium

D. Corneal epithelium

3

Electrophysiologic procedures used to test the following effects of toxicants on visual function include all of the following except...

A. EKG

B. EOG

C. VEP

D. ERG

A. EKG

4

Chemical toxicity is usually asso w/ what type of color vision deficit?

A. Blue-yellow

B. red-green

C. Orange-purple

D. Brown-gray

A. Blue-yellow

5

With respect to surfactant damage to the cornea, which of the following orders of damage are true?

A. Anionic > cationic > neutral

B. Anionic > neutral > cationic

C. Cationic > neutral > anionic

D. Cationic > anionic > neutral

D. Cationic > anionic > neutral

6

Organic solvents splashed into the eye should be treated with...

A. 5 mg of olive oil irrigation followed by water irrigation

B. Irrigation with one drop of dish detergent in one gallon of H2O

C. 0.01 M sodium bicarbonate solution irrigation

D. Copious H2O irrigation

D. Copious H2O irrigation

7

All of the following are true of the lens except...

A. It has a dual blood supply

B. it grows over the life span of an individual

C. It is metabolically active and maintains ionic balance

D. It is composed of approx 2/3 water and 1/3 protein

A. It has a dual blood supply

8

The mammalian retina is very vulnerable to toxicant-induced damage for all of the following reasons except...

A. A high rate of mitochondrial metabolism

B. A low choroidal blood flow rate

C. High turnover of rod and cone outer segments

D. Presence of highly fenestrated choriocapillaries

B. A low choroidal blood flow rate

9

All of the following are true regarding rodent retina except...

A. Its toxicology has relevance for toxicant exposure during the early gestation period in humans

B. it is easily accessible

C. There is no melanin in the choroid

D. Rat rods are similar to those in humans and other primates

C. There is no melanin in the choroid

10

Degenerative changes in the optic nerve can result from deficiencies in all of the following except...

A. Selenium

B. Zinc

C. Thiamine

D. B12

A. Selenium

11

An antituberculosis drug asso w/ eye toxicity is...

A. Isoniazid

B. ethambutol

C. Doxycycline

D. Imipenem

B. ethambutol

12

Solvents that selectively damage the optic nerve and tract are...

A. Ethanol and propanol

B. Acetone and chlorobenzene

C. Carbon disulfide and acrylamide

D. Octane and heptane

C. Carbon disulfide and acrylamide

13

A chemical used to assess corneal damage is...

A. Boric acid

B. hypertonic saline

C. Indocyanine green

D. Fluorescein

D. Fluorescein

14

The slit lamp microscope is least useful in evaluating the...

A. Retina

B. Lens

C. Cornea

D. Aqueous humor

A. Retina

15

Acute angle closure glaucoma can be precipitated by...

A. Beta-blockers

B. Organophosphate pesticides

C. Anticholinergic drugs

D. Morphine

C. Anticholinergic drugs

16

Inorganic lead exposure has been asso w/ all of the following except...

A. Amblyopia

B. Glaucoma

C. Scotoma

D. Optic atrophy

B. Glaucoma

17

The area of the brain asso w/ vision is...

A. Occipital lobe

B. Frontal lobe

C. Temporal lobe

D. Pons

A. Occipital lobe

18

An area of the CNS with a weakened BBB is...

A. Temporal lobe

B. Medulla

C. Optic disk

D. Hypothalamus

C. Optic disk

19

Intraocular melanin has a high binding affinity for...

A. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

B. Toxic heavy metals

C. Electrophiles

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

20

Which of the following statements are true?

A. Only phase 1 drug metabolizing enzymes are present in the eye

B. Alterations in visual function may be the initial symptom following chemical exposure

C. The cornea contains a dual blood supply

D. All of the above

B. Alterations in visual function may be the initial symptom following chemical exposure

21

Which of the following statements is true?

A. Arsenic is toxic to the lens

B. Methanol is toxic to the cornea

C. Aspartame is toxic to the retina

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

22

The most severe damage to the cornea results from contact with...

A. Strong acids

B. Strong bases

C. Organic solvents

D. Anionic detergents

B. Strong bases

23

Cataracts have been asso w/ all of the following except...

A. Opiate analgesics

B. Corticosteroids

C. Napthalene

D. Phenothiazines

A. Opiate analgesics

24

Which of the following drugs is toxic to the retina?

A. Tamoxifen

B. Indomethacin

C. Sildenafil citrate

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

25

The eye toxicity of methanol results from...

A. Methanol

B. formaldehyde

C. Formic acid

D. Metabolic acidosis

C. Formic acid

26

Perchloroethylene eye toxicity has been noted in residents living close to...

A. Gasoline stations

B. Dry cleaners

C. Oil refineries

D. Autobody repair shops

B. Dry cleaners

27

Styrene has been asso w/ ...

A. Decreased tear production

B. cataracts

C. Color vision defects

D. Nystagmus

C. Color vision defects