Flashcards in Chapter 15-Post-Reformation Europe Deck (98)
What happened from 1524-1525 when peasants started making extreme demands and taking matters into their own hands, and when the peasants original goal had been to be treated like free men now rampaged like wild beasts and violence became so common "that hardly might a good man walk in the streets"?
What did the Lutherans present to the emperor as their statement of their faith, written by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther, and was the first Protestant confession of faith?
In what year did both sides of the Peasant's Revolt reach a compromise agreement known as the Peace of Augsburg?
In 1555, both sides of the Peasant's Revolt reached a compromise agreement known as the ____________________, which gave official approval to the territorial, state-established church principle in Germany.
Peace of Augsburg
The Protestant Reformation so shook the Roman church that the pope soon responded with the ______________, which attempted to produce certain limited changes (mostly in the morals of the clergy) within the Roman church. This was made by the pope to change the state-churches.
The Counter-Reformation put new life into the _______________, which used torture and terror to obtain confessions of heresy from its Protestant victims.
What included Protestant writings, vernacular (non-Latin) versions of the Bible, and other works?
Index of Prohibited Books
After recuperating from battle wounds in 1521, a Spanish soldier, __________________, dedicated his life to obedient service to the Roman church and the pope and began Society of Jesus.
In 1540, the pope gave Loyola and some companions approval to begin a new religious organization called the:
Society of Jesus or Jesuits
Rome made to strongest stand against the Protestants at the ___________. Called by the pope in 1545, it reaffirmed the traditional Romanist doctrines one by one while specifically denying the biblical teachings of the Protestant Reformation, including the very heart of the gospel.
Council of Trent
Who was trying to make it clear that Christianity must not be thought of as a revolutionary political movement by strong language?
Who was the man whose father was the archduke of Austria and a member of the powerful Hapsburg royal family,inherited not only Spain, but also Austria, several Italian kingdoms, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, and in 1519 as the Holy Roman Emperor and became known as this, and also struggled with the German Lutherans?
Who was the son of Charles V and few people in history have controlled as much of the earth's surface as him during his reign, maintained powerful Spanish armies and fleets around the Continent, was also fanatically devoted to the pope and the Roman church?
Who was the king of Portugal that introduced the Inquisition, persecuting the Jews in Portugal, driving the Jews out, the nation's banking and commercial power leaving with them, then increased slavery to the point where the Portuguese family died out, leaving Philip II of Spain to seize the throne in 1580?
King John III
Who was Spain's most outstanding writer whose masterpiece was "Don Quixote"?
Miguel de Cervantes
What was the story written by Miguel de Cervantes that depicts the exploits of a country squire who considered himself a knight at a time when knighthood was no longer in fashion?
Who was Portugal's greatest writer who wrote the long poem epic poem "Os Lusíadas"?
Luis de Camões
What was the long epic poem by Luiz de Camões that celebrates Portugal's history and heroes?
What were the damlike barriers of earth and stone that were built to hold back the water in the Netherlands?
Because of its geography, the Netherlands are also called the:
The people in the Netherlands are called:
Dutch or Hollanders
What country is also called Holland and Belgium, and means "low lands" because much of this region lies below sea level?
Who led Spanish troops to the Netherlands in 1567, sent by King Philip II?
Duke of Alva
The cruel Duke of Alva set up a ruling council in the Netherlands which came to be known as the _______________ because of the brutal way it treated the Dutch people.
Council of Blood
Who was the Prince of Orange who, in 1568, became the leader of the repressed Dutch patriots against Spain, and helped in forming the Dutch Reformed Church?
William the Silent
In 1571, Dutch Protestants broke from Spain's ally, the Roman church, and firmed the:
Dutch Reformed Church
In 1579, the seven northern Netherland provinces joined to form the:
United Provinces of the Netherlands
In what year did the United Provinces in the Netherlands declare the Netherlands to be independent of Spain?
What was the name that William the Silent had come to be known as?
"Father of Dutch Liberties"
What was the greatest event of the Tudor period?
Who became the first Tudor king of England after he won the Battle of Bosworth Field 1485?
Who was Henry VII's son who became king of England in 1509 at the age 18 and had six different wives?
Who was Henry VIII's first wife who gave him one daughter named Mary, and was then divorced?
Catherine of Aragon
Who was Henry VIII's second wife who gave him a second daughter-Elizabeth-and was then executed on charges of adultery by him?
Who translated the Bible into English in the 1500s?
In what year did the Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy, recognizing Henry VIII as "the supreme head" of the English church?
In 1534, Parliament passed the _______________, recognizing Henry VIII as "the supreme head" of the English church.
Act of Supremacy
Who was Henry VIII's third wife who died while giving birth to the son Henry desired, Edward?
Who was Henry VIII's son who was only a child of nine when he came to the throne in 1547, and died an early death of 15?
Who were the three men who led England toward more complete reform?
Worship services became much more Protestant as a result of the ___________, which was made up of prayers to be spoken or even sung.
Book of Common Prayer
When his only son died in 1553, which if Henry VIII's daughters became queen of England, was Catholic like her mother, was firmly resolved to return the English nation to the Roman church, and was called "Bloody Mary" because she killed whoever refused to obey?
What was Mary Tudor called because of her cruel executions to anyone who refused to obey?
Mary Tudor's making of the martyrs eventually became an eternal flame in what book?
Book of the Martyrs
Who was the English historian wrote the classic, Book of the Martyrs in 1563?
Who was the future monarch of Spain who Mary Tudor married in 1554, was known for his devotion to the Roman church and fierce opposition to the Protestant movement, and returned to Spain because England did not want him ruling?
Who was the sixteen-year-old-girl who was the great-granddaughter of King Henry II of England, was almost to be married to King Edward VI, but he then died, and was beheaded for her faith on February 12, 1554?
Lady Jane Grey
Who was King Henry VIII's daughter who had remarkable character and an extraordinary performance as ruler of England, and by her country, earned the affectionate nickname?
What was the affectionate nickname that Elizabeth I earned from her country?
"Good Queen Bess"
Elizabeth I tried to settle her country's religious conflicts with the _____________, a series of laws which officially established many Protestant doctrines and practices, laying the foundation for the Anglican Church?
The Elizabethan Settlement laid the foundation for the __________ (the Church of England).
What was the group of people that wanted to purify he Church of England, because they felt that the Anglican Church was still too Romanist in outlook?
What group of people wanted to separate from the official church altogether?
Who became queen of Scotland at only a week old in 1542, when the Reformation began to influence Scotland, and she was also called the Queen of Scots?
What was Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, also called?
Queen of Scots
Who was Mary Stuart's mother, who sent Mary off to France as a child to grow up there and then marry Francis, the king's son and heir to the throne,because she wanted Scotland to be strictly Catholic?
Mary of Guise
What event opened violently with the execution of preachers who urged reform?
The Scottish Refirmation
Who was the outstanding leader of the Scottish Reformation, who was captured at the castle of St. Andrews by Scottish and French troops and forced to serve as a slave on French ships for 19 months?
When the Scottish Protestants were left in control while Mary Queen of Scots was in England, the Scottish Parliament set up and independent Church of Scotland, also known as ________________, incorporating Calvinist doctrines?
Scottish Presbyterian Church
Who was Mary Stuart's son, whom she left in Scotland when she escape and fled to England after the Scots imprisoned her and forced her to give up the throne in 1567?
To match Spain's great strength on the seas, Elizabeth, Queen of England, employed who to build up the English navy?
Sir John Hawkins
Who was one of the skillful English sea captains of England who attacked and raided Spanish ships, and was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe?
Sir Francis Drake
The fleet prepared by King Philip II of Spain, consisting of 130 ships, 2,500 guns, nearly 30,000 soldiers and sailors, and 180 friars and priests, and was considered perhaps the greatest naval force the world had ever seen was called the:
After 10 days of of England fighting the Invincible Armada, who was completely defeated?
The Invincible Armada
When did the English defeat Spain's Invincible Armada, leaving Spain's power and prestige to gradually slip away?
What is the reign of Elizabeth that shines in English history and in the history of the world known as?
Who began his 20-year career as a playwright and poet during the Elizabethan Age and was perhaps the greatest writer of all time?
What are some of William Shakespeare's best-known plays?
A Midsummer Night's Dream
Romeo and Juliet
What was an important literary work of the Elizabethan Age by Edmund Spencer, dedicated to Queen Elizabeth I?
The Faerie Queene
Who wrote The Faerie Queene, dedicated to Queen Elizabeth I?
What were French Calvinist Protestants called?
Who were the two kings who persecuted the Huguenots, forcing them to meet in secret?
In 1559, French Protestants met in their first __________, an assembly of representatives, and drew up a confession of faith and rules of discipline.
When King Henry II died, he left three sons, each of whom served as king during the course of the next 30 years. Who were these three sons?
Who was the mother of the three sons of Henry II, who attempted to rule during the 30-year period of the three serving as kings, and proved to be ruthless and unscrupulous in her scheming to control the country for her own selfish reasons?
Catherine de Médicis
Who were the two leaders of the Protestants during the nine civil wars?
Admiral Gaspard de Coligny
Henry of Navarre
Who was one of the leaders of the Protestants during the nine civil wars who had previously won fame as a military leader?
Admiral Gaspard de Coligny
Who was one of the leaders of the Protestants during the nine civil wars who was the ruler of a small, independent kingdom in the area of the Pyrenees Mountains between Spain and France, and was constantly switching religions?
Henry of Navarre
The Catholic forces were led by what prominent family during the nine civil wars?
What was Catherine of France's feeble effort at peace that decreed that Huguenots could worship in public if they met outside the town limits and if they admitted royal officials to inspect their services?
Edict of January
What was the event on August 24, 1572, where Catholic forces attacked their Protestant rivals while they were still in their beds and lasted for three days?
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
In what year did the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre?
When the crown passed to Henry of Navarre, he became _____________, the first of the Bourbon line of French kings and the first Protestant king of France who was constantly switching religions.
With what, in 1598, did Henry IV ease the Hueguenots' displeasure which stipulated that the Huguenots could live in any towns or districts of France they chose, but could practice their faith only in specifically designated towns where Protestantism had been the prevailing religion?
Edict of Nantes
When Henry IV was assassinated in 1610, his second wife, ______________, attempted to rule in his stead.
Marie de Médicis
Who ruled for Marie de Médicis, and worked tirelessly and ruthlessly for his own political advancement and seemed content to leave the Huguenots alone until some of them showed signs of trying to regain political power in France?
Who was Marie de Médicis young son?
Cardinal Richelieu crushed the rebellion of the Huguenots and then amended the Edict of Nantes with the:
Peace of Alais
What occurred in phases between 1618 and 1648 and was mainly a civil war in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire over internal religious and political issues?
Thirty Years' War
Between what years did the Thirty Years' War occur?
1618 and 1648
Where did the Thirty Years' War begin in 1618, one hundred years after the beginning of the Protestant Reformation?
The Bohemian Protestants revolted and deposed the Bohemian king, ____________, a member of the powerful Hapsburg royal family and an ardent Romanist, in favor of a Protestant noble.
What Lutheran king of Denmark did the German Protestants ask for help, and in 1625, with the support of England and the Netherlands, he invaded Germany as the champion of Lutheran Protestantism?
When Denmark invaded Germany, they suffered several crushing defeats at the hands of which two men, who were King Ferdinand's best generals?
Count of Tilly
Who of Sweden, a great Lutheran warrior-king, landed in Germany with a well-trained army, and turned the tide of the Thirty Years' War in 1631?
When the Swedes defeated Wallenstein's mercenaries of Germany at the _______________, Gustavus was killed.
Battle of Lützen
After several years of negotiation, the ____________ was signed in 1648, and the Thirty Years' War had been waged over religion, only to end with the same religious situation that had existed before the war.
Peace of Westphalia