Chapter 15: Sociological Theories (Social Process Theories) Pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 15: Sociological Theories (Social Process Theories) Pt. 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15: Sociological Theories (Social Process Theories) Pt. 1 Deck (30):
1

What do social process theories explore?

how people learn criminal behavior, neutralize the stigma of engaging in criminal behavior, and rationalize their conduct

2

What are the major risk factors according to social process theories?

(1) peer group pressure
(2) family problems
(3) poor school performance
(4) stigmatization processes
(5) the learning of pro/anti crime values

3

What is the assumption made by social process theories?

they assume that all individuals (regardless of class) have the potential to become criminals

4

What are the different types of social process theories?

(1) Differential Association Theory
(2) Sykes and Matza’s Techniques of Neutralization
(3) Hirsch’s Social Bonds Theory
(4) Gottfredson and Hirscho’s “General Theory of Crime”
(5) Labeling Theory

5

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(1) criminal behavior is _________

learned

6

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(2) criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others in a process of ______________

communication

7

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(3) the principle part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within ________ _________ _______

intimate personal groups

8

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(4) when criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes ?

(1) techniques of committing the crime, which can be simple or complicated

(2) the specific directions the motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes

9

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(5) the specific direction of the ________ and ______ is learned from definitions of the legal code as favorable or unfavorable

motives
drives

10

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(5) the specific direction of the motives and drives is learned from definitions of the ______ _____ as favorable or unfavorable

legal code

11

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(5) the specific direction of the motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal code as __________ or ___________

favorable
unfavorable

12

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(6) a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions __________ to violations of the law over definitions __________ to violation of the law

favorable
unfavorable

13

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(7) ___________ ___________ may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity

differential associations

14

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(7) differential associations may vary in __________, ________, ________, and _________

frequency
duration
priority
intensity

15

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(8) the process of learning criminal behavior by association with _________ and ____-________ patterns involves all of the same mechanism that are involved in any other learning

criminal
anti-criminal

16

The 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory:
(9) while criminal behavior is an expression of ________ needs and values, it’s not explained by those ________ needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values

personal
general

17

Differential Association Theory challenged the prevailing thought that?

(1) crime was an inherited trait that led to a genetic predisposition toward criminality 
(2) crime was a lower class phenomena 
(3) poverty and greed caused crime

18

According to Differential Association theory, what is the fundamental cause of criminal behavior?

cultural conflict

19

Why does Differential Association theory remain dominant today?

(1) it’s a general theory of crime that is applicable to all from of criminal behavior

(2) it spans multiple units of analysis

(3) the theory is appealing to most social scientists because of its emphasis on learning rather than innate predisposition as casual forces for human behavior 

20

What is the assumption that the techniques of neutralization theory makes?

criminals and non-criminals share the same views about the wrongfulness of various conduct

21

Criminals and non-criminals share the same views about the wrongfulness of various conduct.
If this is the case then why do people commit crimes?

criminals have developed various cognitive techniques to nullify or neutralize these crime-inhibiting feelings

22

A person can selectively weaken the controls exerted by conventional values about appropriate conduct, providing the individual offender with the freedom to _____ back and forth from conventional to deviant behavior.

drift

23

A person can selectively weaken the controls exerted by conventional values about appropriate conduct, providing the individual offender with the freedom to drift back and forth from ___________ to _______ behavior.

conventional
deviant

24

What are primary techniques of neutralization?

(1) denial of responsibility 
(2) denial of injury
(3) denial of victim
(4) condemn the condemners
(5) appeal to a higher authority

25

In the context of techniques of neutralization, how does a serial killer use these techniques?

denial of victim injury: because they “had it coming"

denial of responsibility:(“alter ego” did it)

Appeal to higher authority: (compelled to do it because “God’s will” or on a mission)

26

Which technique of neutralization is this: “it wasn’t my fault"

denial of responsibility 

27

Which technique of neutralization is this: “they can afford it"

denial of injury

28

Which technique of neutralization is this: “they had it coming"

denial of victim

29

Which technique of neutralization is this: “everyone else is doing the same thing"

condemn the condemners

30

Which technique of neutralization is this: “I did it to feed my family"

appeal to a higher authority

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