Flashcards in Chapter 15: Sociological Theories (Social Process Theories) Pt. 2 Deck (21):
According to Social Bonds Theory, what is the importance of social bonds in relation to the rate of criminal acts?
people with strong bonds to social groups like family, peers, schools, and religious organizations are less likely to commit criminal acts
According to ______ ______ Theory human nature is inherently evil.
According to Social Bonds Theory human nature is inherently _____.
According to Social Bonds Theory, What are the major bonds that control human behavior?
Which major social bond is this: family and friends
Which major social bond is this: stakes in conformity
Which major social bond is this: conventional activities
Which major social bond is this: obeying the rules of society
Social Bonds Theory is applied to explain what?
(1) the onset ad episodic nature of various types of criminal behavior
(2) the age-crime curve
(3) other group differences in crime rates
According to the general theory of crime, what are the two types of control systems that regulate human behavior?
(1) “social controls”
What is the difference between "social controls" and "self-controls"?
“social controls”- that are primarily external to the individual
“self-control”- that is internal to the individual
How does “social controls” relate to one’s “self-control”?
external social controls affect early socialization processes that lead to one’s self control
Variation in ____-_______ accounts for differences in criminal propensity.
When was labeling theory established?
in the late 1950s and early 1960s
According to Labeling Theory how do formal social control efforts actually do more harm than good?
(1) stigmatizing/labeling the individual as no good and/or worthless
(2) closing off their opportunities for reintegration back into mainstream society
(3) ultimately leading the label person to develop a deviant self-concept and behaving in ways that are consistent with this label
Who created the theory of secondary deviance?
What is the difference between “primary” and “secondary” deviance?
“primary deviance”- the onset of criminal behavior
“secondary deviance”- subsequent criminal acts that occur after formal social control efforts for the primary deviance
According to Labeling Theory how do you break the deviance cycle?
enhance decriminalization deinstitutionalization, and diversion of “criminal cases” away from formal handling within the criminal justice system
According to Labeling Theory, why are there high recidivism rates?
(1) crime-producing effects of stigmatizing these individuals
(2) closing off alternative for them
(3) increasing their likelihood of developing a deviant self-image
Labeling Theory is a popular ______________ approach for understanding crime that emerged from the tumultuous era of the early 1960s.