Flashcards in Chapter 15: Solutions of Acids and Bases Deck (62):
Arrhenius acid: a substance that ... when dissolved in water
increases H3O+ concentration
Arrhenius base: a substance that ... when dissolved in water
Arrhenius acid-base reaction:
acid + base → salt + water
Bronsted-Lowry acid: a
Bronsted-Lowry base: a
Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction:
acid1 + base2 → acid2 + base1
lewis acid: an
electron pair acceptor
lewis base: an
lewis acid-base reaction:
acid + base→adduct
the arrhenius definition applies only to ... solutions and does not describe the behaviors of substances in other ... or in ...
aqueous solutions; solvents; gas-phase reactions
conjugate acid-base pair: related by the ... and ... of a ...
loss; gain; proton
amphoteric: a substance that can act either as an
acid or as a base
acids and bases react quickly with each other and reach equilibrium at speeds that are often limited by
how fast the solution is stirred
arrhenius acids and bases react to form
water and salts
for bronsted-lowry: an acid transfers a proton to a base to form the ... of the original acid and the .... of the original base
conjugate base; conjugate acid
water can react with itself: one water molecule acts as an ... while the other acts as a ..., resulting in the following reaction: ... this is called the ... of water
acid; base; H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-
at 25 degrees C, Kw is
1.0 x 10^-14
hydrogen ion concentration in pure water at 25 degrees C is
1.0 x 10^-7 M
pH of pure water is
the sum of the pH and pOH must always be
14.00 at 25 degrees C
compounds that ionize or dissociate completely are called
compounds that dissociate only partially are called
strong acids ... in solution
strong acids include:
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
the terms strong and weak refer to the degree of ..., not the ... or ... of the acid
ionization; reactivity; corrosiveness
strong bases are the soluble compounds that quantitatively produce ... when dissolved in water
strong bases are ..
(strong bases) group I hydroxides are ..., group II hydroxides are ...
very soluble; less soluble
a weak acid or a weak base is one that does not ... when dissolved in water
weak acids have conjugate bases that are
weak bases have conjugate acids that are
if Ka is very large--much, much greater than 1--the acid is ...
whenever an acid reacts with a base, the products are the ... of the base and the ... of the acid
conjugate acid; conjugate base
the relative strength of an acid results from a competition for ... between the solvent and the conjugate base
the hydrogen ion is the strongest acid that can exist in
leveling effect: the solvent makes the strong acids appear ..., or ..., in ..
equal; level; acidity
analytical concentration: concentration of all the forms of acid, both the ..., and the ..
protonated; conjugate base
Ka for weak acids: HA + H2O H3O+ + A-
electrical conductivity is ... to the concentrations of the ions
Kb for weak bases: B + H2O BH+ + OH-
weak bases actually react with water, removing a proton and leaving OH- in solution. a term used to describe this reaction is
cation is from a strong base, anion from a strong base salt will be
cation is from strong base, anion from weak acid, salt is
cation is conjugate acid of a weak base, anion is from strong acid
if cation is from weak base, and anion is from weak acid, pH is dependent on:
= if Ka for the acidic ion is greater than Kb for the basic ion, the solution is ...
= if Kb for the basic ion is greater than Ka for the acidic ion, the solution is ...
= if Kb for the basic ion is equal to Ka for the acidic ion, the solution is ...
acidic; basic; neutral
cation is a highly charged metal ion, anion is from strong acid, salt is
in a solution of weak acids, only the strongest one is important to
determining the pH of the solution
the contribution by the weaker acid toward the pH of a solution is generally ... in comparison with that of a stronger acid
ionization of an acid is influenced by: the strength of the ... that holds the ..., the bond ..., changes in the strengths of other bonds that accompany the ..., ...of the ions produced in the reaction
bond; proton; polarity; loss of a proton; solvation
binary hydrides are compounds composed of
two elements, one of which is hydrogen
for binary hydrides, acidity is related to the strength of the ... and the stability of the ... in solution
H-A bond; A- ion
orders of bond strength in the series of hydrogen halides is
HF > HCl > HBr > HI
the stronger the H-A bond the ...
weaker the acid
as you move down a column, the strength of the acid ... as bond strength ...
the more electronegative the atom, the more easily it can accommodate additional
electron density on the atom
a more electronegative atom results in a
within any row of the periodic table, the acidities of the binary nonmetal hydrides follow the trend expected on the basis of ... and ... from left to right
oxyacids contain ..., ..., and a ..
hydrogen; oxygen; third element
in oxyacids, the hydrogen atoms that ionize in oxyacids are always bonded to an
the strengths of oxyacids (HOX) increase with increasing
electronegativity of X
strength of oxyacid also increases if the number of oxygen atoms ... in a series due to increases in the ...
increases; stability of the anion produced