Chapter 15: Solutions of Acids and Bases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: Solutions of Acids and Bases Deck (62):
1

Arrhenius acid: a substance that ... when dissolved in water

increases H3O+ concentration

2

Arrhenius base: a substance that ... when dissolved in water

increases OH-

3

Arrhenius acid-base reaction:

acid + base → salt + water

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Bronsted-Lowry acid: a

proton donor

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Bronsted-Lowry base: a

proton acceptor

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Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction:

acid1 + base2 → acid2 + base1

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lewis acid: an

electron pair acceptor

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lewis base: an

electron-pair donor

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lewis acid-base reaction:

acid + base→adduct

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the arrhenius definition applies only to ... solutions and does not describe the behaviors of substances in other ... or in ...

aqueous solutions; solvents; gas-phase reactions

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conjugate acid-base pair: related by the ... and ... of a ...

loss; gain; proton

12

amphoteric: a substance that can act either as an

acid or as a base

13

acids and bases react quickly with each other and reach equilibrium at speeds that are often limited by

how fast the solution is stirred

14

arrhenius acids and bases react to form

water and salts

15

for bronsted-lowry: an acid transfers a proton to a base to form the ... of the original acid and the .... of the original base

conjugate base; conjugate acid

16

water can react with itself: one water molecule acts as an ... while the other acts as a ..., resulting in the following reaction: ... this is called the ... of water

acid; base; H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-
autoionization

17

at 25 degrees C, Kw is

1.0 x 10^-14

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hydrogen ion concentration in pure water at 25 degrees C is

1.0 x 10^-7 M

19

pH of pure water is

7.00

20

the sum of the pH and pOH must always be

14.00 at 25 degrees C

21

compounds that ionize or dissociate completely are called

strong electrolytes

22

compounds that dissociate only partially are called

weak electrolytes

23

strong acids ... in solution

ionize completely

24

strong acids include:

HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4

25

the terms strong and weak refer to the degree of ..., not the ... or ... of the acid

ionization; reactivity; corrosiveness

26

strong bases are the soluble compounds that quantitatively produce ... when dissolved in water

hydroxide ion

27

strong bases are ..

metal hydroxides

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(strong bases) group I hydroxides are ..., group II hydroxides are ...

very soluble; less soluble

29

a weak acid or a weak base is one that does not ... when dissolved in water

ionize completely

30

weak acids have conjugate bases that are

relatively strong

31

weak bases have conjugate acids that are

relatively strong

32

if Ka is very large--much, much greater than 1--the acid is ...

strong

33

whenever an acid reacts with a base, the products are the ... of the base and the ... of the acid

conjugate acid; conjugate base

34

the relative strength of an acid results from a competition for ... between the solvent and the conjugate base

protons

35

the hydrogen ion is the strongest acid that can exist in

water

36

leveling effect: the solvent makes the strong acids appear ..., or ..., in ..

equal; level; acidity

37

analytical concentration: concentration of all the forms of acid, both the ..., and the ..

protonated; conjugate base

38

Ka for weak acids: HA + H2O H3O+ + A-

Ka= [H3O+][A-]/[HA]

39

electrical conductivity is ... to the concentrations of the ions

directly proportional

40

Kb for weak bases: B + H2O BH+ + OH-

Kb= [BH+][OH-]/[B]

41

weak bases actually react with water, removing a proton and leaving OH- in solution. a term used to describe this reaction is

hydrolysis

42

cation is from a strong base, anion from a strong base salt will be

neutral

43

cation is from strong base, anion from weak acid, salt is

basic

44

cation is conjugate acid of a weak base, anion is from strong acid

acidic

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if cation is from weak base, and anion is from weak acid, pH is dependent on:
= if Ka for the acidic ion is greater than Kb for the basic ion, the solution is ...
= if Kb for the basic ion is greater than Ka for the acidic ion, the solution is ...
= if Kb for the basic ion is equal to Ka for the acidic ion, the solution is ...

acidic; basic; neutral

46

cation is a highly charged metal ion, anion is from strong acid, salt is

acidic

47

in a solution of weak acids, only the strongest one is important to

determining the pH of the solution

48

the contribution by the weaker acid toward the pH of a solution is generally ... in comparison with that of a stronger acid

negligible

49

ionization of an acid is influenced by: the strength of the ... that holds the ..., the bond ..., changes in the strengths of other bonds that accompany the ..., ...of the ions produced in the reaction

bond; proton; polarity; loss of a proton; solvation

50

binary hydrides are compounds composed of

two elements, one of which is hydrogen

51

for binary hydrides, acidity is related to the strength of the ... and the stability of the ... in solution

H-A bond; A- ion

52

orders of bond strength in the series of hydrogen halides is

HF > HCl > HBr > HI

53

the stronger the H-A bond the ...

weaker the acid

54

as you move down a column, the strength of the acid ... as bond strength ...

increases; decreases

55

the more electronegative the atom, the more easily it can accommodate additional

electron density on the atom

56

a more electronegative atom results in a

stronger acid

57

within any row of the periodic table, the acidities of the binary nonmetal hydrides follow the trend expected on the basis of ... and ... from left to right

electronegativity; increase

58

oxyacids contain ..., ..., and a ..

hydrogen; oxygen; third element

59

in oxyacids, the hydrogen atoms that ionize in oxyacids are always bonded to an

oxygen atom

60

the strengths of oxyacids (HOX) increase with increasing

electronegativity of X

61

strength of oxyacid also increases if the number of oxygen atoms ... in a series due to increases in the ...

increases; stability of the anion produced

62

a lewis acid must have an empty ... available to accept the pair of electrons donated by the base

orbital