Chapter 15 Spelling Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Spelling Words Deck (84):
1

dialysis

-artificial kidney
-filtering the impurities out of the blood by means of an artificial kidney
dia=through -lysis=breakdown or destruction

2

cortex

-the outer layer of a body organ or structure
-outer layer of the kidney
-contains the nephrons

3

glomerulus

-a ball-shaped collection of very tiny, coiled, and intertwined capillaries
-located in the cortex

4

renal

-pertaining to the kidney

5

Bowman's capsule

-a renal capsule
-the cup-shaped end of the renal tubule containing a glomerulus
-also called glomerular capsule
-a double-walled cup surrounding the glomerulus

6

renal tubule

-the long twisting tube that leads away from the glomerulus to the collecting tubules
-in the renal tubule, water, sugar, and salts are reabsorbed into the bloodstream as the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubes

7

calyx

-cuplike urine collection cavity and division of the renal pelvis through which urine passes from the renal tubules

8

renal pelvis

-central collecting area of the kidney
-it narrows into the large upper end of the ureter
-it receives urine through the calyces and drains it into the ureters

9

ureter

-one of a pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
-muscular tubes lines w/ mucous membrane through which urine is propelled by perstalsis

10

urethra

-where urine exists the bladder
-a mucous membrane-lined tube that leads from the bladder to the exterior of the body

11

meatus

-the external opening of the urethra
-also an opening or tunnel through any part of the body

12

hilum

-the depression, or pit, of the kidney where the vessels and nerves enter
-can be a depression, or pit, of any organ where the vessels and nerves enter

13

glomerular filtrate

-filtered waste products and toxins
-consists of water, sugar, salts, and nitrogenous waste products (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) and are filtered through the thin walls of the glomeruli
glomerul/o=glomerulus -ar=pertaining to

14

hemodialysis

-passing blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities
-the blood is continuously shunting from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering and then returning the clean blood to the bloodstream

15

peritoneal dialysis

-introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter. Through osmosis, this fluid draws waste products out of the capillaries into the abdominal cavity and then removed from the abdomen via a catheter.
-the peritoneum is used as the filter
-2 types: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) OR continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD)

16

antiseptic

-a substance that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms
anti=against sept/o=infection -ic=pertaining to

17

arteriole

-the smallest branch of an artery
arteri/o=artery -ole=small or little

18

aseptic technique

-any health care procedure in which precautions are taken to prevent contamination of a person, object, or are by microorganisms
a=without, not sept/o=infection -is=pertaining to

19

asymptomatic

without symptoms

20

azotemia

-excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism (nitrogenous compounds) in the blood caused by the failure of the kidneys
-it is characteristic of uremia
azot/o=nitrogen -emia=blood condition

21

catheter

-a hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a body cavity or vessel for the purpose of instilling or withdrawing fluid

22

cystometer

-an instrument the measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure
cyst/o=bladder, sac, or cyst -meter=an instrument used to measure

23

cystoscope

-an instrument used to view the interior of the bladder
-includes a lighting system
-also referred to as a 'cysto'
cyst/o=bladder, sac, or cyst -scope=an instrument for viewing

24

dialysate

-a solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood
-also called "bath"
dia=through lys/o=breakdown or destruction -ate=something that

25

fossa

-a hollow or depression, usually on the end of a bone
-in kidney transplant, the donor kidney is placed in the iliac fossa of the recipient

26

nephrolithiasis

-a condition of kidney stones
-also known as renal calculi
nephr/o=kidney lith/o=stone, calculus -iasis=presence of an abnormal condition

27

palpable

-distinguishable by touch

28

peritonitis

-inflammation of the peritoneum

29

pyelitis

-inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyel/o=renal pelivis itis=inflammation

30

radiopaque

--not permitting the passage of X-rays or other radiant energy
-it appears white on an exposed X-ray film

31

renal artery

-one pair of large arteries branching from the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the kidneys, adrenal glands, and ureters
ren/o=kidney -al=pertaining to arter/o=artery -y=noun

32

renal vein

-one of two vessels that carries blood away from the kidney ren/o=kidney -al=pertaining to

33

residual urine

-urine that remains int he bladder after urination

34

solute

-a substance dissolved in a solution, as in waste products filtered out of the kidney into the urine

35

specific gravity

-sp.gr.
-the weight of a substance compared with an equal volume of water, considered the standard
-H20 sp.gr. is 1.000 (one); therefore a substance with a specific gravity of 2.000 would be twice as dense as water

36

toxic

-poison
tox/o=toxic -is=pertaining to poison

37

turbid

-cloudy

38

uremia

-excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood
-also called azotemia

39

urethritis

-inflammation of the urethra
-characterized by dysuria and as the result of an infection of the bladder

40

urination

-the act of eliminating urine from the body
-also called micturition or voiding

41

vesicocele

-herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina
-also called cystocele

42

voiding

-the act of eliminating urine from the body
-also called micturition or urination

43

urinalysis

-a test that involves the collection of random sample of urine
-urine is examined for the presence of any abnormal elements that might indicate various pathological conditions

44

hematuria

-blood in the urine

45

pyuria

-pus in the urine

46

bacteriuria

-the presence of bacteria in the urine

47

albuminuria

-abnormal amounts of protein usually albumin in the urine
-usually a sign of renal disease or complications from other diseases such as hypertension or heart failure

48

anuria

-the stopping of urine production or a urinary output of less than 100 mL per day
-can result from: kidney failure or dysfunction, < in blood pressure that affects filtration pressure, or obstruction in the urinary passageways
an=without, not -uria=urine condition

49

dysuria

-painful urination
-usually b/c of bacterial infection or obstruction

50

fatigue

-a state of exhaustion or loss of strength or endurance such as following a strenuous physical activity

51

glycosuria

-abnormal presence of a sugar, especially glucose, in the urine
-associated with the ingestion of large amounts of carbohydrates, endocrine or renal disorder, and most definitely with diabetes mellitus

52

kentonuria

-excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine
-associated with diabetes mellitus, starvation or other metabolic condition
-also called ketoaciduria

53

lethargy

-the state or quality of being indifferent, apathetic, or sluggish

54

malaise

-a vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort, often marking the onset of disease or infection

55

nocturia

-excessive urination at night
-also called nycturia
-associated with renal disease, drink a lot of liquids before bedtime, or people with prostatic disease

56

oliguria

-excretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake
-scanty urine output
-< than 500 ml/ 24hrs
-usually caused by imbalance of bodily fluids and electrolytes, renal lesions, or urinary tract obstruction

57

polydipsia

-excessive thirst
-may indicate renal problems, diabetes mellitus or insipidus

58

polyuria

-excreting abnormally large amounts of urine
-occurs with diabetes mellitus or insipidus and chronic kidney infections

59

pyuria

-excessive numbers of WBCs in the urine
-usually a sign of infection of the urinary tract
-pus in urine

60

urgency

-a feeling of the need to void urine immediately
-it may accompany a bladder infection

61

cystitis

-inflammation of the bladder
-signs:urgency and frequency of urination, hematuria
-causes: bacterial infection, kidney stone, or tumor

62

glomerulonephritis

-inflammation of the glomerulus
-usually occurs in children
-symptoms: proteinuria, hematuria (the color of cola), < urine output, > sp.gr.. headaches, hypertension, generalized edema (face and orbital)
-cause: usually by beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection elsewhere in the body or another microorganism
-can occur three weeks after strep infection

63

hydronephrosis

-distension of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in a ureter
-primary cause is kidney stones
-symptoms: pain, vomiting, oliguria, hematuria, and nausea

64

nephrotic syndrome

-a group of symptoms that occur when the glomerulus is damaged causing large quantities of protein to go through the glomerular membrane into the urine
-causes severe proteinuria
-also called nephrosis
-causes significant edema; usually result of glomerulonephritis, or diabetes mellitus

65

polycystic kidney disease

-a hereditary disorder of the kidneys
-grape-like, fluid-filled sacs or cysts replace normal kidney tissue and eventually destroys healthy kidney tissue
-hematuria is present in 1/2 of cases and hypertension is common
-ultimately leads to kidney failure slowly (15-20 yrs)

66

pyelonephritis

-acute bacterial infection of the renal pelvis
-most common disease of the kidneys
-usually occurs from a bladder infection that travels up to the renal pelvis
-commonly from a procedure such as a cystoscopy or catheterization
-symptoms: fever, chills, nausea, pain, headache , and muscular pain, cloudy urine w/ > WBCs and smell.

67

renal cell carcinoma

-a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in adulthood
-asymptomatic until later stages of the disease
-symptoms: hematuria (most common), later pain, a palpable mass, and intermittent fever

68

uremia

-chronic renal failure
-the late stages of renal failure are known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
-irreversible deterioration in renal function
-most common causes are hypertension and diabetes
-once symptoms appear, 80-90% of renal function has been lost
-will eventually require a transplant

69

chronic renal failure

-a gradual progression towards uremia occurs
-the late stages of renal failure are known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
-irreversible deterioration in renal function
-most common causes are hypertension and diabetes
-once symptoms appear, 80-90% of renal function has been lost
-will eventually require a transplant

70

vesicoureteral reflux

-an abnormal back flow (reflux) of urine from the bladder to the ureter
-may be caused by a congenital defect, a urinary tract infection, or obstruction of the bladder outlet
-increased hydrostatic pressure may cause bacterial infection or damage to the ureters and kidney

71

blood urea nitrogen

-BUN
-a blood test performed to determine the amount of urea and nitrogen present in the blood
-the level usually increases w/ impaired glomerular filtration

72

catheterization

-the introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or to remove a fluid
-most common is inserted into the urinary bladder to remove urine

73

creatine clearance test

-a test for kidney function that measures filtration rate of creatinine (a waste product of muscle metabolism)

74

cystometrography

-an examination performed to evaluate tone
-measures bladder pressure during filling and voiding
-pressure is measured by a cystometer

75

cystoscopy

-the process of viewing the interior of the bladder using a cystoscope

76

extracorporeal lithotripsy

-also known as extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
-using sound waves to break up renal calculi so they can pass through the ureters

77

intravenous pyelogram (IVP)

-also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram
-radiographic procedure provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
-uses a dye contrast intravenously and then X-rays as the contrast is cleared by the glomerular filtration

78

renal angiography

-A-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium (using the femoral artery, up the aorta to the renal arteries)

79

renal scan

-radioactive isotope (tracer) is injected intravenously and the radioactivity over each kidney is measured as the tracer passes through the kidney

80

retrograde pyelogram

(RP) a radiographic procedure where small-caliber catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and the renal pelvis
-used when a IVP does not get accurate visualization or if someone is allergic to the IVP contrast medium

81

ultrasonography

-also called ultrasound
-procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient's skin

82

urinalysis

-physical, chemical, or microscopic examination of urine
-checks color, turbidity, sp.gr., pH; sugar , ketones, protein, or blood; pus, blood cells, casts, crystals, pus, and bacteria

83

voiding cystourethrography

-X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process after the bladder has been filled with contrast material
-use a radiopaque dye into the bladder using a catheter
cyst/o=bladder, cyst, or sac urethr/o=urethra -graphy=process of recording

84

catheterized specimen

-using aseptic techniques, a very small catheter is inserted into the bladder via the urethra to withdraw a urine specimen