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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Terms Deck (20):
1

Is essentially a linked series of chemical reactions that begins with a particular molecule and converts it into some other molecule or molecules in a carefully defined fashion.

Metabolism

2

Photosynthetic organisms that obtain energy by trapping sunlight.

Phototroph

3

Includes animals; organisms that obtain energy through the oxidation of foodstuffs generated by phototrophs.

Chemotroph

4

Reactions that transform fuels into cellular energy.

Catabolism

5

Reactions that require energy, such as the synthesis of glucose.

Anabolism

6

Pathways that can be either anabolic or catabolic, depending on the energy conditions in the cell.

Amphibolic pathway

7

The universal currency of Free Energy in biological systems; an immediate donor of free energy.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

8

A molecule's tendency to transfer its terminal phosphoryl group to water.

Phosphoryl-transfer potential

9

The cycle that generates a proton gradient by the oxidtion of carbon. This in turn accounts for more than 90% ATP generation.

Oxidative phosphorylation

10

Stores energy in an easily exchangeable form.

Activated carrier

11

Organic molecules that are needed in small amounts in the diets of some higher animals.

Vitamin

12

Are essential components of many pathways. Useful energy is often derived from the oxidation of carbon compounds.

Oxidation-reduction reaction

13

Forms bonds by using free energy from ATP cleavage.

Ligation reaction

14

Rearranges particular atoms within a molecule. Their role is often to prepare the molecule for subsequent reactions such as redox reactions.

Isomerization reaction

15

A phospholryl group is transferred from the activated phosphoryl-group carrier, ATP, to glucose, the initial stp in glycolysis, a key pathway for extracting energy from glucose. These reactions are used to synthesize ATP.

Group-transfer reaction

16

Cleave bonds by the addition of water. Is a common means employed to break down large molecules, either to facilitate further metabolism or to reuse some of the components for biosynthetic purposes.

Hydrolytic reaction

17

Functional groups may be added to double bonds to form single bonds or removed from single bonds to form double bonds.

Addition to or formation of double-bond reaction

18

The enzymes that catalyze addition to or formation of double-bond reactions.

Lyase

19

Many reactions in metabolism are controlled by the energy status of the cell. One index of the energy status is the ____ ____, which is proportional to the mole fraction of ATP plus half the mole fraction of ADP, given that ATP contains two anhydride bonds, whereas ADP contains one.

= [ATP] + 1/2[ADP] / [ATP] +[ADP] + [AMP]

Energy charge

20

In contrast with the energy charge, this depends on the concentration of Pi (orthophosphate) and is directly related to the free energy storage available from ATP,

=[ATP] / [ADP] +[Pi]

Phosphorylation potential