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1

A well-supported hypothesis

Theory

2

The preserved remains of ancient organisms

Fossils

3

Nature provided the variation and humans selected those variations that they found useful

Artificial selection

4

The members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life

Struggle for existence

5

The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment

Fitness

6

Any inherited characteristics that increases an organisms chance of survival

Adaptation

7

When individuals are better suited to their environment and can survive and reproduce successfully

Survival of the fittest

8

Another word for survival of the fittest

Natural selection

9

Each living species descended, with changes, from other species over time

Descent with modification

10

The common ancestors of all living things

Common descent

11

Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissue

Homologous structures

12

Organs that are reduced in size

Vestigial organs

13

Change over time

Evolution

14

Who contributed more to our understanding of evolution than anyone else

Charles Darwin

15

When was Charles Darwin born, what was his job, and how long did his voyage on the Beagle last and where did it take him

1809, English naturalist, and 5 years and all around the world

16

Darwin was looking for a scientific explanation for what

The diversity of life on earth

17

What were two observations that Darwin made

An enormous number of species inhabit earth and some species that lived in the past no longer live

18

When Darwin studied fossils what new questions arose

Why had so many of theses species disappeared? How were they related to living species?

19

What islands influenced Darwin the most on his voyage

Galápagos Islands

20

On the Galápagos Islands which islands have more rainfall

The higher ones

21

What was the differences in shell shape of tortoises from Hood Island and Isabella Island

Hood island tortoises have a long neck and a shell that is curved and open around the neck and legs. Isabella island tortoises have a dome-shaped shell and a shorter neck

22

Darwin observed that small brown birds on the Galápagos Islands differed in the shape of their ____

Beak

23

What did Darwin think about on his journey home to England

He thought about how the different characteristics of plants and animals vary from island to island

24

What did Darwin's voyage give him the opportunity to do

See many species and islands

25

Similar habitats=

Similar species

26

What was Darwin's hypothesis that he used to explain his findings

He began to wonder if animals living on different islands had once been members of the same species

27

What did Hutton and Lyell help Darwin recognize

How old the earth is

28

What two ideas were proposed by James Hutton

Layers of rock are moved by forces beneath earths surface and most geological processes operate extremely slow

29

What are three things did Lyells work do

His work explained how awesome geological features could be built up or torn down over long periods of time, his publications helped Darwin appreciate the significance of the geological phenomena that he had observed, and he stressed that scientists must explain past events in terms of processes that they can actually observe

30

What two ways did an understanding of geology influence Darwin

He asked himself if the earth could change over time, might life change as well? He realized that it would have taken many, many years for life to change in the way he suggested