Flashcards in Chapter 15: The Pleural Cavity and Lung Collapse Deck (26):
Double membrane covering the lungs and internal surface of the chest wall.
Thin membrane covering the lungs
Thin membrane covering the internal surface of the chest wall.
Pressure within the pleural cavity
True or false: Pressure within the pleural cavity is normally greater than pressure in the lungs.
False; it is normally lower, creating a vacuum when
What holds the lungs in the expanded position within the pleural cavity?
The lower pressure of the pleural cavity compared to the pressure of the lungs creates a vacuum that keeps lungs expanded
Lung collapse due to loss of vacuum in the pleural space
The potential space between the lungs and the chest wall
What causes a pneumothorax?
Air enters the pleural space, causing the vacuum to be lost
What are 3 potential causes of a pneumothorax?
1) Penetrating injury to the chest wall.
2) Lung injury or disease allows air from lungs to escape into the pleural cavity.
3) Sprontaneous pneumothorax from rupture of small, air-filled sub-pleural bleb at lung apex
What is the main cause of a spontaneous pneumothorax?
What are the signs/symptoms of a pneumothorax?
1) Chest pain
3) Reduced breath sounds on affected side
How is a pneumothorax diagnosed?
What is a dangerous potential complication from a pneumothorax?
What is a tension pneumothorax?
When air enters pleural space and cannot get back out, resulting in positive pressure build-up and displacement of the heart and mediastinal structures, causing impaired expansion of the opposite lung.
How do you treat a pneumothorax?
Insert a chest tube to allow air to escape (and perhaps apply slight vacuum to help lung reinflate)
Collapse of parts of the lung, causing incomplete lung
expansion because lung is obstructed or compressed
2 main types of atelectasis
1) Obstructve atelectasis
2) Compression atelectasis
What causes obstructive atelectasis?
Complete bronchial obstruction, causing collapse of the part of the lungs supplied air by the bronchus that is obstructed
Which way to mediastinal structures shift during obstructive atelectasis?
Toward the side affected (due to intrapleural vacuum)
What happens to the diaphragm during obstructive atelectasis?
It elevates on the affected side (due to the intrapleural vacuum)
What type of atelectasis can result as a post-operative complication? Why?
Obstructive atelectasis; caused by pt not coughing and breathing deeply, allowing mucous to block bronchi.
What causes compression atelectasis?
External compression of the lung from fluid, air, or blood accumulation in the pleural cavity (e.g, CHF, post-surgical, or bed-ridden pts).
What is the result of atelectasis?
1) Poor gas exchange
2) Increased risk of infections
How do you treat atelectasis?
1) Remove obstruction or material compressing lung
2) Encourage deep breathing and frequent coughing.