Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders Deck (56):
1

Psycotherapy

An interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem.

2

Eclectic Psychotherapy

Treatment that draws on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem.

3

The most widely used approach to psychotherapy is ___ psychotherapy.

Eclectic psychotherapy.

4

Psychodynamic Psychotherapies

A general approach to treatment that explores childhood events and encourages individuals to develop insight into their psychological problems.

5

Resistance

A reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material.

6

Free Association in Psychodynamic Therapy

Client tells every thought that enters their mind, without censorship.

7

Dream Analysis in Psychodynamic Therapy

Dreams are treated as metaphors that symbolize unconscious conflicts or wishes that contain disguised clues that the therapist can help the client understand.

8

Interpretation in Psychodynamic Therapy

The process by which the therapist deciphers the meaning underlying what the client says and does.

9

Analysis of Resistance

In the process of "trying on" different interpretations of the clients' thoughts and actions, the therapist may find a certain interpretation that the client finds particularly unacceptable. This resistance can be analyzed to confront hidden issues.

10

Jung and the Collective Unconscious

Culturally determined symbols and myths that are shared among all people that could serve as a basis for interpretation beyond sex or aggression.

11

Transference

When the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies.

12

Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)

A form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships.

13

Behaviour Therapy

A type of therapy that assumes that disordered behaviour is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviours into more constructive behaviours.

14

Token Economy

A form of behaviour therapy in which clients are given "tokens" for desired behaviours, which they can later trade for rewards.

15

Exposure Therapy

An approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response.

16

Systematic Desensitization

A procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles of his or her body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations.

17

Cognitive Therapy

A form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, and the world.

18

Cognitive Restructuring

A therapeutic approach that teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs.

19

Mindfulness Meditation

Teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment, to be aware of his or her thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and to detect symptoms before they become a problem.

20

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

A blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies.

21

Person-Centered Therapy

An approach to therapy that assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist.

22

What are the two well-known types of humanistic/existential therapies?

Person-Centered (humanistic) and Gestalt (existential).

23

Three basic qualities that need to be exhibited by those who practice person-centered therapy:

Congruence, empathy, and unconditional positive regard.

24

Gestalt Therapy

An existential approach to treatment with the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviours, experiences, and feelings and to "own" or take responsibility for them.

25

Focusing and empty chair technique are characteristics of ___ therapy.

Gestalt.

26

Group Therapy

Therapy in which multiple participants (who often do not know one another at the outset) work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere.

27

Antiphyshotic Drugs

Medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.

28

Psychopharmacology

The study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms.

29

Atypical Drugs

Newer medication.

30

Typical or Conventional Drugs

Older medication.

31

Tardive Dyskinesia

A condition of involuntary movements of the face, mouth, and extremities.

32

Antianxiety Medications

Drugs that help reduce a person's experience of fear or anxiety.

33

Most common antianxiety medications are ___, which deal with the hormone ___.

Benzodiazapines, GABA.

34

What does MAOI stand for?

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor.

35

Antidepressants

A class of drugs that help lift people's moods.

36

Trofranil and Elavil are ___.

Antidepressants.

37

Trofranil and Elavil work by blocking the reuptake of ___ and ___.

Norepinepherine and serotonin.

38

What does SSRI stand for?

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

39

What is the most commonly prescribed kind of antidepressants

SSRI's.

40

Prozac, Celexa, and Paxil are ___.

SSRI's.

41

SNRI's differ from SSRI's in that they also deal with the reuptake of ___.

Norepinepherine.

42

Mood Stabilizers

Medications used to suppress swings between mania and depression.

43

Lithium is associated with ___ and ___ problems.

Thyroid and kidney.

44

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

A treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain.

45

ECT is used to treat ___ and ___.

Depression and mania.

46

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

A treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp,which alters neuronal activity in the brain.

47

Phototherapy

A therapy that involves repeated exposure to bright light.

48

Psychosurgery

The surgical destruction of specific brain areas.

49

Natural Improvement

The tendency of symptoms to return to their mean or average level.

50

Nonspecific Treatment Effects

Unrelated to the specific mechanisms by which treatment is supposed to be working.

51

Placebo

An inert substance or procedure that has been applied with the expectation that a healing response will be produced.

52

Outcome Studies

Evaluate whether a particular treatment works.

53

Process Studies

Answer questions regarding why a treatment works, or under what circumstances it works.

54

Two levels of empirical support:

Well-established treatments and Probably efficacious treatments.

55

Iatrogenic Illness

A disorder of symptom that occurs as a result of a medical or psychotherapeutic treatment itself.

56

The textbook mentions 5 points concerning the ethical treatment of clients. What are they?

Striving to benefit clients and taking care to do no harm, establishing relationships of trust with clients, promoting accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness, seeking fairness in treatment and taking precautions to avoid biases, and respecting the dignity and worth of all people.