Chapter 15 - Urbanization, Population, And The Enviroment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Urbanization, Population, And The Enviroment Deck (53):
1

What are the two characteristics of ancient cities?

1. They were usually surrounded by walls that served as a military defense
2. The central area of he city was almost always occupied by a religious temple, a royal palace, government buildings, and a public center

2

Conurbation

A cluster or gowns or cities forming an unbroken urban environment

3

Megalopolis

Very large conurbations

4

Urbanization

The movement of the population into towns and cities and away from the land

5

How is urbanization related to globalization?

The more urbanized cities become, the more they are able to connect and become global.

6

Ecology approach

A perspective on urban analysis empathizing the "natural" distribution of city neighborhoods into areas having contrasting characteristics.

7

Inner city

The areas composing the central neighborhoods of a city.

8

Urban ecology

An approach study of urban life based on an analogy of plants and organisms to the physical environment.

9

Urbanism

A term used to denote distinctive characteristics of urban social life, such as its impersonal or alienating nature

10

How does urban ecology use physical science analogies to explain life in modern cities?

Plants grow where the resources are plentiful. Cities are created by similar principles.

11

What is the urban interaction problem?

The necessity for city dwellers to respect social boundaries when so many people are in close physical proximity all the time.

12

Created environment

Constructions established by human beings to serve their own needs.

13

What is 'Eyes and Ears Upon the Street'?

According to Jane Jacobs, the more people there are on the streets, the more likely street life will be orderly

14

Suburbanization

The development of towns surrounding a city

15

Exurban counties

Low-density suburban counties on the periphery of large metro areas.

16

Urban renewal

The process of renovating deteriorating neighborhoods by encouraging the renewal of old buildings and the construction of new ones.

17

Gentrification

A process of urban renewal in which older, deteriorated housing is refurbished by affluent people moving into the area

18

Global city

A city that has become an organizing center of the new global economy.

19

Informal economy

Economic transactions carried on outside the sphere of formal paid employment

20

Demography

The study of the size, distribution, and composition of populations

21

Crude birthrate

A statistical measure representing the number of births within a given population per year

22

Fertility

The average number of live-born children produced by women of childbearing age in a particular society

23

Fecundity

A measure of the number of children that it is biologically possible for a woman to produce

24

Crude death rate

A statistical measurement representing the number of deaths that occur annually in a given population per year

25

Mortality

The number of deaths in a population

26

Infant mortality rate

The number of infants who die during the first year of life, per 1,000 live births.

27

Life expectancy

The number of years an average person can expect to live

28

Life span

The maximum length of life that is biologically possible for a member of a given species

29

Rates of population of growth or decline

A measure of population change calculated by subtracting the yearly number of deaths per 1,000 from the number of births per 1,000

30

Exponential growth

A geometric, rather than linear, rate of increase. Populations tend to grow exponentially

31

Doubling time

The time it takes for a particular level of population to double

32

Malthusianism

A doctrine about population dynamics developed by Thomas Malthus, according to which, population increase comes up against "natural limits," represented by famine and war

33

Demographic transition

The changes in the ratio of births to deaths in the industrialized countries from the nineteenth century onward

34

Dependency ratio

The ratio of people of dependent ages (children and the elderly) to people economically active ages

35

Sustainable development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

36

Anthropocene

A term used to denote the current geographical epoch, in which many geologically significant conditions and processes are profoundly altered by human activities

37

What are at least two problems facing rural America today

extreme population loss, decline in farming, high poverty opportunities, and scarce economic opportunities.

38

Why did so many Americans move to suburban areas in the 1950's and 1960's?

The post-war economic boom mad housing in the suburbs cheaper than apartments in the city

39

What are two unintended consequences of suburbanization?

It created more highways and took manufacturing and service jobs with them to the suburbs.

40

What are the four main characteristics of globalization on cities?

1. They have developed into command posts for the global economy
2. They are the key locations for financial and specialized service firms
3. They are the sites of production and innovation in these newly expanded industries
4. They are markets in which the products of financial and service industries are bought, sold, or otherwise disposed of

41

What is the effect of globalization on cities?

Made them more interdependent and encouraged the connection of cities

42

What are economic consequences of urban growth in developing countries?

Because of rapid population growth, there are not enough jobs for all the people who live in the new urbanized areas

43

What are environmental consequences of urban growth in developing countries?

There is not enough housing for all the new residents, coupled with the rise in pollution and unclean water

44

What are social consequences of urban growth in developing countries?

Poverty is widespread and existing social services can't keep up with the need for healthcare, etc.

45

What is the difference between fertility and fecundity?

Fertility is the average number of children born, while fecundity is the number of children that's biologically possible

46

What's Malthus's position on the relationship between population growth and the food supply?

He believed that, because food supplies can't keep up with the rapid increases in population, we are doomed to live forever in famine and war.

47

What approach to urban analysis claims that “cities do not grow up at random but in response to advantageous features of the environment”?

the Chicago School’s ecological view

48

According to David Harvey, urbanism is a process that involves a constant restructuring of space. What influences this process?

decisions made by business, government, and investors

49

Social problems such as high levels of child poverty, high rates of motor vehicle fatalities and other accidental deaths, and low levels of health and educational services are troubling realities faced by people living...

In rural areas

50

In modern societies, most of the population lives where?

In the city

51

Manuel Castells emphasized __________, such as the gay community in San Francisco, as an important factor in urban development.

Underprivileged groups

52

What are the stages of the demographic transition?

Stage 1. The conditions characteristic of most traditional societies, where birth and death rates and infant mortality are high
Stage 2. When death rates fall while fertility remains high
Stage 3. When birth rates fall to such a level that population is fairly stable

53

What is the human exceptionalism paradigm?

The believe that humans are unique amongst all species