Chapter 15 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Vocabulary Deck (23)
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Personality

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

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Sigmund Freud

Developed the Psychoanalytic Theory - the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms.

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Free Association

In psychoanalysis, a method for exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says what comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

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Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives.

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Unconscious

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

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Id

Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification.

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Ego

The largely conscious, "executive" part of the personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality.

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Superego

The part of the personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations.

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Psychosexual Stages

The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

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Oedipus Complex

According to Freud, a boy's sexual desire toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

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Identification

The process which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.

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Fixation

According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.

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Defense Mechanisms

In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by distortion of reality.

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Repression

The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

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Regression

A defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.

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Reaction Formation

A defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches acceptable and unacceptable thoughts into their opposites.

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Projection

A defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

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Rationalization

A defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.

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Displacement

A defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

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Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.

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Projective Test

A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projections of one's inner dynamics.

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Thematic Appreciation Test

A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

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Rorschach Inkblot Test

The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 Inkblots, designed by Herman Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.