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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (125):
1

Polymorphonuclear

leukocytes granulocytes -regulators of the immune response -enzymes that degrade foreign substances -staining differentiates the three different classes

2

Polymorphonuclear

cells that moce from the blood vessels to the site of infection and begin phagocytizing foreign objects

3

resistance

the ability to withstand or prevent the development of a disease

4

saliva

rinses microbes from the teeth

5

skin

a protective coat of dead or dying epithelial cells

6

sebum

an oily substance produces by the sebaceous glands

6

stomach acid

low pH kills most microbes

6

Sweat

helps maintain body temperature, eliminate certains wastes, and flush microorganisms from the surface of the skin

7

tears

produced by the lacrimal glands. excess tears dilute and wash away the irritating substance or microorganisms

9

transferrin

inhibit growth of certain bacteria by reducing the amount of available iron

10

urine

washes microbes from urethra

11

vasoreactive agents

cause edema or swelling- local increase in blood flow and dilation of blood vessels.

82

Mucous

a thick polysaccharide coating that most microbes cannot penetrate

82

Mucous membrane

cover internal and some external areas of the body

83

Nasal hairs and turbinates

filters and causes turbulence of air that is inhaled 1. Increases the chance foreign particles will come into contact with mucous 2.Initiate cough and sneeze reflex to expel "stuff" from the air passage

84

Phagocytosis

"cell eating", it is an important second line of defense that is activated when the first line fails. It also plays an important role in supporting adaptive immunity by stimulating T and B cells

85

Factors that affect phagocytosis

- the presence of antibody -the presence of a capsule (phagocytic cells cannot "catch" the bacteria because capsule helps it slip)

86

Stages of phagocytosis

- creation of a phagosome -development into a phagolysosome -degradation of the microbe (digestive enzymes, oxygen radicals, and other toxic compounds)

87

Phagocyte

migrates to the site of infection and destroys the infecting bacteria

88

Phagolysosome

formed when membranes of phagosome and lysosome fused together (the content of the phagolysosome is then digested by the enzymes)

89

Neutrophils

neutral staining granules which involved in phagocytosis; mediate the early stages of inflammation

90

Normal flora

permanent or long term organisms withing a host that do not usually cause a disease

91

Opsonization

the antigen such a bacterium is coated with antibodies that enhance its ingestion and lysis by phagocytic cells

92

IgA

A product of the humoral branch of the specific immune system

93

IgA

A product of the humoral branch of the specific immune system

94

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

96

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

97

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

98

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

98

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

100

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

101

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

102

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

102

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

104

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

105

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

106

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

107

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

107

Macrophage

White blood cells in tissues produced by the division of monocytes.

109

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

110

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

111

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

112

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

113

Macrophage

White blood cells in tissues produced by the division of monocytes.

113

Margination

Accumulation

114

IgA

A product of the humoral branch of the specific immune system. The antibody found in secretions.

115

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

116

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

117

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

118

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

119

Macrophage

White blood cells in tissues produced by the division of monocytes.

120

Margination

Accumulation

121

Mast Cell

Contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They release chemical mediators into the blood; histamine,serotonin, kinins, prostaglandins

123

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

124

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

125

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

126

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

127

Macrophage

White blood cells in tissues produced by the division of monocytes.

128

Margination

Accumulation

128

Mast Cell

Contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They release chemical mediators into the blood; histamine,serotonin, kinins, prostaglandins

129

Membrane Attack Complex

Involved in the lysis of antibody coated targets

131

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

132

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

133

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

134

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

135

Macrophage

White blood cells in tissues produced by the division of monocytes.

136

Margination

Accumulation

137

Mast Cell

Contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They release chemical mediators into the blood; histamine,serotonin, kinins, prostaglandins

137

Membrane Attack Complex

Involved in the lysis of antibody coated targets

138

Mononuclear

One-lobed nucleus

140

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

141

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

142

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

143

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

144

Macrophage

White blood cells in tissues produced by the division of monocytes.

145

Margination

Accumulation

146

Mast Cell

Contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They release chemical mediators into the blood; histamine,serotonin, kinins, prostaglandins

147

Membrane Attack Complex

Involved in the lysis of antibody coated targets

147

Mononuclear

One-lobed nucleus

149

Inflammation

A multi-step process triggered by physical trauma or microbial multiplication

150

Lysosome

Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.

151

Lactoferrin

A globular glycoprotein that is in various secretory fluids such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions

152

Lysozyme

A chemical agent that attacks the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.

153

Macrophage

White blood cells in tissues produced by the division of monocytes.

154

Margination

Accumulation

155

Mast Cell

Contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They release chemical mediators into the blood; histamine,serotonin, kinins, prostaglandins

156

Membrane Attack Complex

Involved in the lysis of antibody coated targets

157

Mononuclear

One-lobed nucleus

157

agranulocyte

non polymorphonuclear leucocytes / no lysosomes.

158

agranulocyte

non polymorphonuclear leucocytes / no lysosomes.

159

antigen presentation

phago cells put peices on surface alert immune system

160

agranulocyte

non polymorphonuclear leucocytes / no lysosomes.

161

antigen presentation

phago cells put peices on surface alert immune system

162

basophil

involved in allergic reactions and inflammation / basic (blue/purple) staining granules

163

agranulocyte

non polymorphonuclear leucocytes / no lysosomes.

164

antigen presentation

phago cells put peices on surface alert immune system

165

basophil

involved in allergic reactions and inflammation / basic (blue/purple) staining granules

166

capsule

inhibits phagocytosis/ pretective layer.

167

agranulocyte

non polymorphonuclear leucocytes / no lysosomes.

168

antigen presentation

phago cells put peices on surface alert immune system

169

basophil

involved in allergic reactions and inflammation / basic (blue/purple) staining granules

170

capsule

inhibits phagocytosis/ pretective layer.

171

complement

a set of at least 20 different serum proteins, always present in blood

172

agranulocyte

non polymorphonuclear leucocytes / no lysosomes.

173

antigen presentation

phago cells put peices on surface alert immune system

174

basophil

involved in allergic reactions and inflammation / basic (blue/purple) staining granules

175

capsule

inhibits phagocytosis/ pretective layer.

176

complement

a set of at least 20 different serum proteins, always present in blood

177

diapedesis

squeeze through no bruise, white blood cells

178

endogenous pyrogens

CD8 which recognizes MHC classI and endogenous antigen/T cytotoxic cells

179

eosinophil

involved in response to parasites/ acidic (red) staining granules

180

fever

a systemic response resulting in an abnormally high body temp.

181

granulocyte

lysosomes/contains chemicals with many antimicrobial functions, polumorphonuclear leucocytes,

182

agranulocyte

non polymorphonuclear leucocytes / no lysosomes.

183

antigen presentation

phago cells put peices on surface alert immune system

184

basophil

involved in allergic reactions and inflammation / basic (blue/purple) staining granules

185

capsule

inhibits phagocytosis/ pretective layer.

186

complement

a set of at least 20 different serum proteins, always present in blood

187

diapedesis

squeeze through no bruise, white blood cells

188

endogenous pyrogens

CD8 which recognizes MHC classI and endogenous antigen/T cytotoxic cells

189

eosinophil

involved in response to parasites/ acidic (red) staining granules

190

fever

a systemic response resulting in an abnormally high body temp.

191

granulocyte

lysosomes/contains chemicals with many antimicrobial functions, polumorphonuclear leucocytes,

192

Granulocytes..

a. regulators of the immune response
    b. enzymes that degrade foreign substances
    c. staining differentiates the three different classes
d. all of the above

SLR

 

D all of the above

 

193

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a monocyte?

a. monocytes are found in the circulating blood
b. they are involved in allergic and inflammation responses  
c.macrophages are found in the tissues
  d. b
oth are involved in phagocytosis and antigen   

SLR

B. Basophils are involved in allergic and inflammation responses