Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (34):
1

Protein receptors located in the plasma membranes of defensive cells (phagocytes)

Toll-like receptors (TLR)

2

Substances that increase phagocytosis.

Opsonins

3

What is a complement?

Protein that get rid of microorganisms.

4

First line of defense against microorganisms

-Skin (Sweat (lysozyme G+), dead cells, sebum)
-Mucous membranes
-Normal flora

5

Defense in the respiratory system.

-Cilia
-Mucous
-Normal flora

6

Attaches to the cilia in the lungs and destroys them

B. pertussis (Whooping cough)

7

Second line of defense against microorganisms

-Blood components
-WBC's
-Phagocytes (Phagocytosis): neutrophils (arrive 1st), monocytes. (Phagocytosis: Ingestion and digestion of microorganism)
-Plasma Proteins
-Antibodies
-Inflammation

8

3 types of formed elements?

-Erythrocytes (RBC)
-Platelets
-Leukocytes (WBC)

9

First to arrive at site of infection. Perform phagocytosis.

Neutrophils

10

2 cell types that kill extraceularly?

-Eosinophils
-Natural killer lymphocytes

11

Antimicrobial substances, against pathogens.

Nonspecific chemical defenses

12

How long does it take to make antibodies?

About 2 weeks

13

Defenses in digestive system

-Low pH (Stomach acid)
-Normal flora
-Digestive enzymes

14

Monocytes that cross to the tissues

macrophages

15

Proteins that non specifically get rid of microorganisms.

complement

16

Complement activation results in:

-Lysis
-inflammation
-Phagocytosis

17

Antiviral proteins produced by animal cells after viral stimulation.

Interferons (IFN)

18

A type of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) produced by neutrophils, macrophages.

Defensins

19

Phagocytosis
Name 3 phagocytes:

-Neutrophils
-Monocytes
-Macrophages
-Dendritic

20

What types of defense mechanisms do the innate immune system use to combat extracellular pathogens?

-Phagocytosis
-Complement
-WBC's

21

What types of defense mechanisms do the innate immune system use to combat intracellular pathogens?

-Interferons

22

Combats worms in blood?

Eosinophils

23

Results when chemicals called pyrogens trigger the hypothalamus to increase the body's core temperature

Fever

24

Anything that increases temperature.

Pyrogens

25

Transfers iron.

Transferrins
HINT: Trans-fe-rrins
Fe=Iron

26

Non specific defense is

The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen

27

Neutrophils attach to vascular linings and move out of the cells in a process known as

Diapedesis

28

Margination is the process in which WBC......

Slow down, stop and attach to vessel walls

29

The primary phacoytes in the blood are

monocytes

30

Macrophages located in the liver are called

Kuffer cells

31

Fever is caused by chemicals known as

Pyrogens

32

Complement protein that acts as opsonin?

C3b

33

Phagocytes stick to the endothelium

Margination

34

Antiviral proteins produced by animal cells after viral stimulation

Interferons