Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (143)
1

The skin is the ____ layer.

boundary

2

The skin is ____ thick and acts as a defense.

1.5mm to 4mm

3

The epidermis is replaced every _____ days.

25-45 days

4

The epidermis is filled with _____.

keratin

5

sebum?

?

6

defensins

?

7

lyzosymes

?

8

Normal flora likes _____ areas, skin folds or hair follicles and glandular ducts.

moist

9

Slide 2

?

10

_____ rash diseases are characterized by flat, red area on the skin that is covered with small bumps.

Maculopapular

11

Types of Maculopapular Rash Diseases

Measles
Rubella
Fifth's disease
Roseola
Scarlet fever

12

Measles is also called _____.

rubeola

13

____ children die every day of measles (rubeola).

540

14

There has been an effective vaccine for measles since ____.

1964

15

Why is there such a discrepancy with the death rate of Measles even though there is a vaccine?

parents are opting out of vaccinations
vaccine access

16

Measles (2) is highly _____.

communicable

17

_____ are the only reservoir for measles (2)

humans

18

According to the CDC ____ people out of 1,000 die from measles (2).

1-2

19

Measles presents as a rash head and ____.

spreads

20

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a disorder related to _____

measles

21

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) affects ____ in 1 million infections?

1

22

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is progressive, debilitating and ______.

deadly brain disorder

23

Measles virus infects the ______ and bronchial cells, travels to the lymphatic system and enters the blood stream.

tracheal

24

Measles is diagnosed via clinical presentation and ____ to test for IgM measles antigen.

ELISA

25

Measles prevention include the ____ vaccine live or attenuated.

MMR

26

MMR vaccines are recommended for healthy healthy children aged ____ months, with a booster before the child enters school.

12-15

27

Rubella also known as _____.

German measles

28

_____ is a minor rash disease with a few complications.

Rubella

29

There are ___ forms of Rubella.

two

30

The two forms of Rubella are _____ and ______.

postnatal and congenital

31

The fetal injury varies with rubella depending on the _____.

time of infections

32

____ can transmit rubella even if asymptomatic.

mother

33

Rubella is a ___ virus, one that can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus.

teratogenic

34

Rubella is an ______, worldwide.

endemic

35

Rubella is transmitted via respiratory secretions and occasionally ____.

urine.

36

The rubella virus is shed up to a ____ after the rash.

week

37

Rubella is only ___ communicable; close living or contact required.

moderately

38

Rubela is well controlled in the U.S. fewer than ____ cases reported in each of the last several years.

10

39

MMR/MMRV vaccine series is for _____ and _____.

rubella and measles

40

____ disease is an erythema infectiosum.

fifth

41

Erythema infectiosum aka fifth disease account for a fifth of the diseases recognized to cause ____ in children.

rashes

42

Scarlet fever, measles, rubella, and 4ths disease are types of ____.

Erythma infectiosum

43

____ presents as "slapped-cheek" and rash on arms, legs, and trunk.

fifth disease aka erythema infectiosum

44

Fifth disease also presents with maculopapular, ____.

blotches run together

45

Fifth disease is caused by ______ and very contagious.

parvovirus

46

Fifth disease is diagnosed mostly by _____ and ruling out presence of Rubella IgM.

clinical presentation

47

There is no vaccine and no treatment for ______, but usually mild and resolves itself.

fifth disease

48

_____ is also known as "sixth disease"

Roseola

49

Roseola or sixth disease results in ____ of high fever.

several days

50

On the fourth day of Roseola, fever disappears and a ___ can appear.

rash

51

Only some people develop maculopapular rash, ___%, with Roseola aka sixth disease.

30%

52

Roseola is common in young children and ____.

babies

53

____ of young children with Roseola result in febrile seizures.

10-15%

54

Roseola aka sixth disease is caused by _____ and sometimes ______.

HHV6
sometimes HHV7

55

______ can be latent indefinitely.

Roseola aka sixth disease

56

Roseola occasionally, reactivates in childhood or adulthood, causing _____ like symptoms.

mononucleosis

57

____% of the US population is infected by adulthood.

Roseola aka sixth disease

58

There is ___ treatment or vaccine for Roseola.

no

59

Scarlet Fever causes a ______ rash.

maculopapular

60

Scarlet fever is the result of a ____ infection with S. pyogenes.

respiratory

61

If S. pyogenes contains a bacteriophage carrying a gene for ______ exotoxin, scarlet fever can result.

erythrogenic

62

Impetigo is a _____.

superficial bacterial infection

63

Impetigo causes the skin to ____ or _____.

flake or peel

64

Impetigo can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus or ______.

Streptococcus pyogenes

65

____ causes impetigo more often in newborns.

S. pyogenes

66

_____ causes impetigo is more often in older children/adults.

S. aureus

67

Impetigo can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in _____.

either age group

68

____ is highly contagious and children are the primary victims.

Impetigo

69

Impetigo is transmitted by direct contact, fomites, and _____.

mechanical vectors

70

Impetigo presents as peeling skin and ____.

crusty/flaky scabs

71

____ is most often around the mouth, face, and extremities, but can occur anywhere on the skin.

Impetigo

72

_____ digests hyaluronic acid that binds connective tissue.

Hyaluronidase

73

______ digests blood clots.

Staphylokinase

74

____ is an enzyme that helps colonize oily surfaces.

Lipase

75

Major Virulence Factors of Impetigo

Exfoliative toxins A and B,
coagulase
Hyaluronidase
Staphylokinase
Lipase

76

_______ and coagulase distinguish between S. aureus and S. pyogenes.

culture

77

Impetigo has a huge arsenal of enzymes and _____.

toxins

78

A ______ is an infected hair follicle, abseces aka boil caused by S. aureus

furuncle

79

A ____ is an aggregation of furuncles.

carbuncles

80

____ is a fast-spreading infection in dermis and subcutaneous tissues.

cellulitis

81

Signs and symptoms of _____ include pain, tenderness, swelling, warmth, fever, and swelling of the lymph nodes.

celluitis

82

A sign of cellulitis is _____, which is an area of inflammation leading away from the the area carried by the lymphatic system.

lymphangitis

83

Cellulitis is diagnosed through _______.

clinical signs and symptoms

84

Cellulitis is caused by S. aureus and ______.

S. pyogenes

85

_____ cellulitis responds well to oral antibiotics.

mild

86

Severe infections or immunocompromised patients with cellulitis require ______.

IV antibiotics

87

When cellulitis causes extensive tissue damage _____ is necessary.

surgical debridement

88

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) is caused by an ______ and S. aureus.

exfoliative toxin

89

Mostly ____ and babies become infected with Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).

newborns

90

Transmission of SSSS is normally by _____.

caregivers

91

_____ are when a split occurs in the epidermal tissue layers with Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).

bullous lesions

92

Staphylococcus Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) is treated with a _____.

systemic antibiotics

93

Bullous lesions cause widespread _____.

desquamation

94

Necrotizing Fascitis is mostly caused by ______, but sometimes S. aureus.

S. pyogenes

95

Flesh eating bacteria is another name for ____.

necrotizing fasciitis

96

______ is an infection in connective tissue and causes tissue necrosis.

necrotizing fasciitis

97

HHV3 is called ______.

Varicella virus

98

______ are the only natural host for HHV3.

humans

99

HHV3 or varicella virus has an incubation time of _____ days.

10-20

100

HHV3 or varicella virus causes a full body rash that last _____.

4-7 days

101

______ causes skin lesions, itchy vesicles filled with a clear fluid.

HHV3 or varicella virus

102

Skin lesions caused by varicella virus encrust and ______ after several days.

drop off

103

Recovery is ______ in most cases of varicella virus or HHV3.

complete

104

___% of HHV3 or varicella virus develop encephalophathy can be fatal.

0.1%

105

Shingles is also known as ______.

herpes zoster

106

_______ virus enters nerve ganglia after recovery from chickenpox.

Shingles aka herpes zoster

107

Shingles develops ______ after reaction by stimuli.

abruptly

108

Possible stimuli to shingles/herpes zoster include psychological stress, X ray treatments, _______, surgery, or many others.

immunosuppressive drug therapy

109

_______ presents as an asymmetrical distribution of rash on the trunk or head.

Shingles aka herpes zoster

110

_____ is an inflammation of the nerve ganglia ='s pain and tenderness and can last for several months.

postherpetic neuralgia w/ shingles/herpes zoster

111

Varicella zoster virus reemerges as ______.

shingles

112

Prevention of chickenpox and shingles can be acquired via live attenuated ______ available since the mid 1990s.

vaccine

113

Zostavax is a vaccine to prevent ____.

shingles

114

Uncomplicated varicella is self limiting and requires ______.

no therapy

115

Secondary bacterial infections associated with chickenpox and shingles requires _____.

antibiotics

116

Oral acyclovir is for at risk patients of _________ and shingles.

chicken pox

117

There are over a _____ types of Human Papilloma virus aka HPV.

100

118

HPV: warts are ______.

benign skin growths

119

HPV: warts are spread by ______ or indirectly through contaminated surfaces

direct contact

120

___% of HPV: warts are self resolving infections.

70%

121

_____ is more susceptible to HPV: warts.

broken skin

122

______ is also known an pinkeye.

conjunctivitis

123

Conjunctiva covers eye except for ____ and lines eyelids.

cornea

124

Blinking, tears, and lysozymes are defenses against _______.

conjunctivitis aka pinkeye

125

Microbiota is _____ in number in the eye and is only found in 80% of individuals.

sparse

126

Infections of the conjunctiva is relatively _____.

common

127

Microbes with a predilection for _____ cause conjunctivitis.

eye tissues

128

The presence of ____ and eye injury increases the risk for pinkeye.

contact lenses

129

Accidental inoculation of the eye by a ______ also can cause pinkeye.

traumatic event

130

_____ conjunctivitis starts in one eye.

microbial

131

_____ conjunctivitis is equal in both eyes.

allergy

132

A variety of species cause _______ conjunctivitis.

bacterial

133

Bacterial conjunctivitis is caused by ______ usually by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae.

vertical transmission

134

______ and N. gonorrhoeae cause bacterial conjunctivitis.

C. trachomatis

135

Viral conjunctivitis is caused by _____ and enteroviruses.

adenoviruses

136

Swelling and yellow discharge are symptoms of ______ conjunctivitis.

bacterial

137

Watery eyes are a sign of _____ conjunctivitis.

viral

138

_______ are effective in treating bacterial conjunctivitis.

bacterial

139

Chlamydia trachomatis is called _____.

trachoma

140

Repeated trachoma infections can cause sever ______ inside eyelid causing the eyelashes to scratch the cornea.

scarring

141

Chlamydia trachomatis aka trachoma can cause severe damage leading to _____.

blindess

142

Chlamydia trachomatis aka trachoma is the leading cause of _____ of infectious origin.

preventable

143

_____ are effective treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis aka trachoma.

antibiotics