Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (143)
The skin is the ____ layer.
The skin is ____ thick and acts as a defense.
1.5mm to 4mm
The epidermis is replaced every _____ days.
The epidermis is filled with _____.
Normal flora likes _____ areas, skin folds or hair follicles and glandular ducts.
_____ rash diseases are characterized by flat, red area on the skin that is covered with small bumps.
Types of Maculopapular Rash Diseases
Measles is also called _____.
____ children die every day of measles (rubeola).
There has been an effective vaccine for measles since ____.
Why is there such a discrepancy with the death rate of Measles even though there is a vaccine?
parents are opting out of vaccinations
Measles (2) is highly _____.
_____ are the only reservoir for measles (2)
According to the CDC ____ people out of 1,000 die from measles (2).
Measles presents as a rash head and ____.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a disorder related to _____
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) affects ____ in 1 million infections?
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is progressive, debilitating and ______.
deadly brain disorder
Measles virus infects the ______ and bronchial cells, travels to the lymphatic system and enters the blood stream.
Measles is diagnosed via clinical presentation and ____ to test for IgM measles antigen.
Measles prevention include the ____ vaccine live or attenuated.
MMR vaccines are recommended for healthy healthy children aged ____ months, with a booster before the child enters school.
Rubella also known as _____.
_____ is a minor rash disease with a few complications.
There are ___ forms of Rubella.
The two forms of Rubella are _____ and ______.
postnatal and congenital
The fetal injury varies with rubella depending on the _____.
time of infections
____ can transmit rubella even if asymptomatic.
Rubella is a ___ virus, one that can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus.
Rubella is an ______, worldwide.
Rubella is transmitted via respiratory secretions and occasionally ____.
The rubella virus is shed up to a ____ after the rash.
Rubella is only ___ communicable; close living or contact required.
Rubela is well controlled in the U.S. fewer than ____ cases reported in each of the last several years.
MMR/MMRV vaccine series is for _____ and _____.
rubella and measles
____ disease is an erythema infectiosum.
Erythema infectiosum aka fifth disease account for a fifth of the diseases recognized to cause ____ in children.
Scarlet fever, measles, rubella, and 4ths disease are types of ____.
____ presents as "slapped-cheek" and rash on arms, legs, and trunk.
fifth disease aka erythema infectiosum
Fifth disease also presents with maculopapular, ____.
blotches run together
Fifth disease is caused by ______ and very contagious.
Fifth disease is diagnosed mostly by _____ and ruling out presence of Rubella IgM.
There is no vaccine and no treatment for ______, but usually mild and resolves itself.
_____ is also known as "sixth disease"
Roseola or sixth disease results in ____ of high fever.
On the fourth day of Roseola, fever disappears and a ___ can appear.
Only some people develop maculopapular rash, ___%, with Roseola aka sixth disease.
Roseola is common in young children and ____.
____ of young children with Roseola result in febrile seizures.
Roseola aka sixth disease is caused by _____ and sometimes ______.
______ can be latent indefinitely.
Roseola aka sixth disease
Roseola occasionally, reactivates in childhood or adulthood, causing _____ like symptoms.
____% of the US population is infected by adulthood.
Roseola aka sixth disease
There is ___ treatment or vaccine for Roseola.
Scarlet Fever causes a ______ rash.
Scarlet fever is the result of a ____ infection with S. pyogenes.
If S. pyogenes contains a bacteriophage carrying a gene for ______ exotoxin, scarlet fever can result.
Impetigo is a _____.
superficial bacterial infection
Impetigo causes the skin to ____ or _____.
flake or peel
Impetigo can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus or ______.
____ causes impetigo more often in newborns.
_____ causes impetigo is more often in older children/adults.
Impetigo can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in _____.
either age group
____ is highly contagious and children are the primary victims.
Impetigo is transmitted by direct contact, fomites, and _____.
Impetigo presents as peeling skin and ____.
____ is most often around the mouth, face, and extremities, but can occur anywhere on the skin.
_____ digests hyaluronic acid that binds connective tissue.
______ digests blood clots.
____ is an enzyme that helps colonize oily surfaces.
Major Virulence Factors of Impetigo
Exfoliative toxins A and B,
_______ and coagulase distinguish between S. aureus and S. pyogenes.
Impetigo has a huge arsenal of enzymes and _____.
A ______ is an infected hair follicle, abseces aka boil caused by S. aureus
A ____ is an aggregation of furuncles.
____ is a fast-spreading infection in dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Signs and symptoms of _____ include pain, tenderness, swelling, warmth, fever, and swelling of the lymph nodes.
A sign of cellulitis is _____, which is an area of inflammation leading away from the the area carried by the lymphatic system.
Cellulitis is diagnosed through _______.
clinical signs and symptoms
Cellulitis is caused by S. aureus and ______.
_____ cellulitis responds well to oral antibiotics.
Severe infections or immunocompromised patients with cellulitis require ______.
When cellulitis causes extensive tissue damage _____ is necessary.
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) is caused by an ______ and S. aureus.
Mostly ____ and babies become infected with Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).
Transmission of SSSS is normally by _____.
_____ are when a split occurs in the epidermal tissue layers with Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).
Staphylococcus Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) is treated with a _____.
Bullous lesions cause widespread _____.
Necrotizing Fascitis is mostly caused by ______, but sometimes S. aureus.
Flesh eating bacteria is another name for ____.
______ is an infection in connective tissue and causes tissue necrosis.
HHV3 is called ______.
______ are the only natural host for HHV3.
HHV3 or varicella virus has an incubation time of _____ days.
HHV3 or varicella virus causes a full body rash that last _____.
______ causes skin lesions, itchy vesicles filled with a clear fluid.
HHV3 or varicella virus
Skin lesions caused by varicella virus encrust and ______ after several days.
Recovery is ______ in most cases of varicella virus or HHV3.
___% of HHV3 or varicella virus develop encephalophathy can be fatal.
Shingles is also known as ______.
_______ virus enters nerve ganglia after recovery from chickenpox.
Shingles aka herpes zoster
Shingles develops ______ after reaction by stimuli.
Possible stimuli to shingles/herpes zoster include psychological stress, X ray treatments, _______, surgery, or many others.
immunosuppressive drug therapy
_______ presents as an asymmetrical distribution of rash on the trunk or head.
Shingles aka herpes zoster
_____ is an inflammation of the nerve ganglia ='s pain and tenderness and can last for several months.
postherpetic neuralgia w/ shingles/herpes zoster
Varicella zoster virus reemerges as ______.
Prevention of chickenpox and shingles can be acquired via live attenuated ______ available since the mid 1990s.
Zostavax is a vaccine to prevent ____.
Uncomplicated varicella is self limiting and requires ______.
Secondary bacterial infections associated with chickenpox and shingles requires _____.
Oral acyclovir is for at risk patients of _________ and shingles.
There are over a _____ types of Human Papilloma virus aka HPV.
HPV: warts are ______.
benign skin growths
HPV: warts are spread by ______ or indirectly through contaminated surfaces
___% of HPV: warts are self resolving infections.
_____ is more susceptible to HPV: warts.
______ is also known an pinkeye.
Conjunctiva covers eye except for ____ and lines eyelids.
Blinking, tears, and lysozymes are defenses against _______.
conjunctivitis aka pinkeye
Microbiota is _____ in number in the eye and is only found in 80% of individuals.
Infections of the conjunctiva is relatively _____.
Microbes with a predilection for _____ cause conjunctivitis.
The presence of ____ and eye injury increases the risk for pinkeye.
Accidental inoculation of the eye by a ______ also can cause pinkeye.
_____ conjunctivitis starts in one eye.
_____ conjunctivitis is equal in both eyes.
A variety of species cause _______ conjunctivitis.
Bacterial conjunctivitis is caused by ______ usually by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae.
______ and N. gonorrhoeae cause bacterial conjunctivitis.
Viral conjunctivitis is caused by _____ and enteroviruses.
Swelling and yellow discharge are symptoms of ______ conjunctivitis.
Watery eyes are a sign of _____ conjunctivitis.
_______ are effective in treating bacterial conjunctivitis.
Chlamydia trachomatis is called _____.
Repeated trachoma infections can cause sever ______ inside eyelid causing the eyelashes to scratch the cornea.
Chlamydia trachomatis aka trachoma can cause severe damage leading to _____.
Chlamydia trachomatis aka trachoma is the leading cause of _____ of infectious origin.