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What were some of the causes of the scientific revolution?

The Renaissance, exposure to works by Arab scholars, navigational problems of long sea voyages in the age of exploration, more colleges and universities which caused a rise in literacy, and changes in religious philosophy/ challenges to traditional theology


What was science called in the 1600s?

Natural philosophy


When was the term "scientist" coined?

In the 1830s


Who was Nicolaus Copernicus?

A polish astronomer who questioned the traditional geocentric theory. He created the heliocentric theory, but no one believed him, including Luther


What is geocentric theory?

The theory that the earth is the center of the universe


Who first wrote about heliocentric theory?



Who was Tycho Brahe?

A Danish nobleman (who was the King of Denmark) and funded an advanced observatory in Prague. He hypothesized a universe that combined Aristotle/ Ptolemy and Copernicus.


Who funded an advanced observatory in Prague?

Tycho Brahe


Who was Johannes Kepler?

Brahe's assistant who formulated the 3 Laws of Planetary Motion as mathematically probed the heliocentric theory


What are the 3 Laws of Planetary Motion?

1. Orbits of planets are elliptical, not circular.
2. Planets do not orbit at a uniform speed.
3. The time a planet takes to make its orbit is precisely related to its distance to the sun


Who created the 3 Laws of Planetary Motion?

Johannes Kepler


Who was Galileo Galilei?

An Italian scientist who continued working in astronomy but angered church authorities. He was taken to court by the church and under pressure he signed a confession that Copernicus was wrong. He was then placed on house arrest until he died.


What happened to Galileo with the church?

In 1616, the Church warned Galileo to stop publishing his theories on the universe. Galileo was taken to court by the church and under pressure he signed a confession that Copernicus was wrong. Galileo placed under house arrest in 2633 and died in 1642. The church admitted in 1922 that he was right about his theories.


Who was Sir Isaac Newton?

He was an English scientist who published theories on law of universal gravitation. He explained the universe in a unified, coherent system. He wrote Principal Mathematic in 1687


What is Empiricism?

Scientific knowledge is gained through inductive reasoning and research rather than the old medieval methods of speculative reasoning


What were the consequences of the scientific revolution?

Scholars could discuss theories and ideas, which caused the expansion of knowledge. The development of the modern scientific method was an effect, and it had some practical applications to improve the lives of the masses. It caused pressure on and from religious authorities. It opened the door to the Age of Enlightenment.


What stimulated scientific progress?

The Reniassance