Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (45):
1

Microorganisms removed from incoming air by sticky mucus are most likely to be destroyed by

the digestive action of gastric juice.

2

Which of the following bones does not possess sinuses?

zygomatic

3

Which of these laryngeal cartilages occurs singly rather than in pairs?

cricoid

4

The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the

tension on the vocal cord.

5

The walls of the alveoli are composed of

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS epithelium.

6

The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by

atmospheric pressure.

7

The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the

elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension.

8

The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the

TIDAL volume

9

Which of the following is true as a result of the dead air space of the respiratory tract?

The carbon dioxide content of the air inside the lungs is always HIGHER than the outside air.

10

The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood

OXYGEN concentration.

11

The portion of the respiratory center that is responsible for establishing the basic pattern of breathing is the

RHYTHMICITY area.

12

The effects of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions on the respiratory center are similar because

1. CARBON DIOXIDE combines with water to form 2. CARBONIC ACID.

13

The vocal cords are located within the

larynx

14

The respiratory membrane consists of

TWO thicknesses of epithelial cells AND basement membranes.

15

The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when

carbon dioxide concentration INCREASES.

16

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes

CARBON DIOXIDE to react with WATER.

17

Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?

vital capacity

18

The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the

FORCE OF AIR PASSING OVER the vocal cords.

19

Which of the following proteins is the most important physiologically in the transport of carbon dioxide by blood?

carbonic anhydrase

20

If a flashlight is placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room, it may be possible to illuminate the

FRONTAL sinus

21

Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may cause

OBSTRUCTION of the AIRWAY

22

The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called

bronchoscopy

23

The condition of newborns called respiratory distress syndrome is caused by a

a lack of SURFACTANT

24

The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by

surface tension.

25

The condition in which air enters the pleural cavity is called

pneumothorax

26

Which of the following air volumes cannot be measured using a simple spirometer?

RESIDUAL volume

27

The most sensitive areas of the air passages are located in the

larynx and bronchi.

28

Bronchial asthma is a condition caused by

an allergy.

29

During an asthma attack, the patient usually finds it most difficult to

exhale

30

Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to develop from

EPITHELIAL cells

31

The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is termed

TV

32

Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to

INCREASE BOTH the rate and depth of breathing.

33

Hyperventilation is most likely to be accompanied by a(n)

DECREASE in blood CO2 concentration and a RISE in pH.

34

During moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations of

Both oxygen and carbon dioxide REMAIN NEARLY UNCHANGED

35

The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.

common passageway for AIR AND FOOD

passageway for AIR ONLY

36

Changes in the structure of the respiratory tube as the branches become finer include the

epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous.

37

The right lung is composed of ______ lobes; the left lung is composed of ______ lobes.

superior, middle, and inferior

superior and inferior

38

The first event in inspiration is

the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract.

39

The first event in expiration is

the diaphragm and external respiratory muscles relax.

40

Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory center due to

an increase in CARBON DIOXIDE, thereby resulting in an increase in HYDROGEN IONS.

41

The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located

outside the thorax.

42

The glottis is the

opening between the vocal cord.

43

Ordinary air is about _____ oxygen and _____ nitrogen.

21%

78%

44

Carbon monoxide bonds to _______ more effectively than does oxygen.

hemoglobin

45

The inflation reflex is activated when

stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration.