Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (38):
1

Qualities of Acids

Taste sour, burn skin, turn litmus paper red

2

Qualities of bases

Taste bitter, burn skin, turn litmus paper blue

3

Acids react with bases...

to form water and salt

4

Arrhenius definition of an acid

a substance that produces H+ ions in water

5

Arrhenius definition of a base

substance that produces OH- ions in water

6

Strong acids

Hydrochloric acid, HCL
Hydrobromic Acid, Hbr
Hydroiodic Acid, HI
Chloric Acid, HClO3
Perchloric Acid, HClO4
Nitric Acid, HN03
Sulfuric acid, H2SO4

7

Strong Bases

Group 1A Metal Hydroxides [LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH]
Heavy Group 2A metal hydroxides [Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2

8

Strong acids in water

ionize completely

9

Weak acids in water

ionize partially

10

Weak acids

Formic acid (HCOOH)
Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
Acetic acid (CH3COOH)

11

H+ ions exist in water as

hydronium H3O

12

Weak bases

Ammonia (NH3)
Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)

13

Limitations of arrhenius theory

Restricted to aqueous solutions
Species other than OH- exhibit basic characteriestics

14

Bronsted Definition of Acid

Substance that donates protons (H+)

15

Bronsted Definition of Base

Substance that accepts protons

16

Conjugate base

Results when an acid loses a proton

17

Conjugate acid

Results when a base gains a proton

18

Strong acids have conjugate bases that are

weak bases

19

Weak acids have conjugate bases that are

strong bases

20

Amphiprotic substances

can act as either an acid or base, depending on the reaction

21

Reactions move from

strong to weak

22

Know the ph, POH, to concentration formulas

4 formulas

23

Kw

1.0 x 10^-14

24

Lower PH value means

more acidic

25

HigherpH value means

more basic

26

Polyprotic acids

Acids that have more than one ionizable H atom

27

The more easily a base accepts a proton...

The less easily the conjugate acid gives up a proton

28

In acid base reactions equilibirum favors

transfer of proton from stronger acid to stronger base to form weaker acid and weaker base

29

Acids with one ionizable H atom

monoprotic acicds

30

Large values of Ka indicate

strong acids

31

Cations that react with water

1. Polyatomic ions containing one or more protons
2. Highly charged metal cations
(lowers pH)

32

Anions that react with water

Anions that have conjugate acids that are weak acids
(raises pH)

33

Factors that affect acid strength

H-A bond polarity (H atom partially positive)
H-A bond strength
Conjugate base stability (more stable base = stronger acid)

34

oxyacids

contain O-H bonds

35

binary acids

H-A bonds

36

carboyxl acids

contain COOH groups

37

lewis acid

electron pair acceptor

38

lewis base

electron pair donor