Chapter 16 - Conquering a Continent, 1854-1890 Flashcards Preview

AP U.S. History > Chapter 16 - Conquering a Continent, 1854-1890 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Conquering a Continent, 1854-1890 Deck (35):
1

William Seward

Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; advocated for asserting U.S. power in Latin America and Asia via trade

2

Emmeline Wells

Mormon woman who led the women's suffrage movement in Utah - in 1870, it became second state to grant women the vote (after Wyoming)

3

John Wesley Powel

leader of a surveying expedition in the West and author of Lands of the Arid Region of the United States

4

Chief Joseph

Nez Perce tribe leader who attempted to lead his people in fleeing to Canada after being forcibly removed from their ancestral land by the federal government

5

Sitting Bull

Lakota chief who led his people in their resistance to the federal government

6

George Armstrong Custer

officer in the American Indian Wars and leader of the charge in the Battle of Little Big Horn

7

Geronimo

Apache leader who resisted reservation life

8

Ohiyesa (Dr. Charles Eastman)

Indian student who became a doctor and worked side by side with traditional healers

9

Buffalo Bill Cody

influential myth-maker about the "Wild West"

10

Frederick Jackson Turner

historian who proclaimed the end of the "frontier" (a constantly westward-moving line that existed between civilization and savagery) in 1890

11

transcontinental railroad

unbroken rail line from the Atlantic to the Pacific

12

protective tariff

a tax on foreign goods coming into the U.S., giving U.S. manufacturers a competitive advantage

13

Treaty of Kanagawa

allowed U.S. ships to refuel at two Japanese ports, opening trade between the countries

14

Burlingame Treaty

treaty between U.S. and China which guaranteed the rights of U.S. missionaries in China and set official terms for the emigration of Chinese laborers

15

Munn v. Illinois

Supreme Court affirmed that states could regulate key businesses if they were "clothed in the public interest"

16

gold standard

a system where paper notes are backed by gold held in a bank's vaults

17

Crime of 1873

law directing the U.S. Treasury to cease minting silver dollars, retire greenbacks, and replace greenbacks with notes backed by the gold standard

18

Homestead Act

gave 160 acres of federal land to any applicant who occupied and improved the property

19

Morrill Act

set aside 140 million federal acres that states could sell to raise money for public universities

20

land-grant colleges

public universities created with the funds of lands sales; they aimed to broaden educational opportunities and foster scientific and technical expertise

21

Comstock Lode

an immense silver ore deposit discovered in 1859 in Nevada, bringing a diverse population to the region

22

General Mining Act of 1872

allowed those who discovered minerals on federal land to work the claim and keep all proceeds

23

boomtown

mining town

24

Long Drive

system by which cowboys herded cattle hundreds of miles north from Texas to Kansas

25

"rain follows the plow"

idea that settlement in drier areas increased rainfall

26

Exodusters

African Americans who left the Deep South after the Civil War to settle on farms in places like Kansas

27

Yellowstone National Park

the first national park; founded largely due to railroad tourism

28

U.S. Fisheries Commission

organization founded to make recommendations to stem the decline in wild fish

29

Sand Creek Massacre

1864 massacre of over 100 peaceful Cheyennes (mostly women and children) by John M. Chivington's Colorado militia

30

Fetterman Massacre

massacre of over 80 soldiers by Sioux warriors; resulted in the closing of the Bozeman Trail (main route into Montana)

31

Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock

Supreme Court ruling that Congress could make whatever Indian policies it chose and ignore existing treaties

32

Daws Severalty Act of 1887

gave Natives severalty by dividing reservations into homesteads

33

Battle of Little Big Horn

1876 battle occurring when American cavalry attacked an encampment of Indians who resisted removal to a reservation (Indians won)

34

Ghost Dance Movement

movement in which Native Americans believed they could perform sacred dances to resurrect the bison and call a great storm to drive the whites back across the Atlantic

35

Wounded Knee

1890 massacre of Sioux Indians by American cavalry at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota

Decks in AP U.S. History Class (31):