Chapter 16: Organic Synthesis Flashcards

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1
Q

What happens when you react a haloalkane with potassium cyanide and what kind of reaction is it?

A

C-N replaces the X and produces a nitrile and KX

Nucleophilic substitution

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2
Q

Forming nitriles from aldehydes and ketones

A

Aldehydes and ketones react with hydrogen cyanide creating a hydroxynitrile

(H2SO4 and NaCN)

Nucleophile addition

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3
Q

Reduction of nitriles

A

React them in the presence of hydrogen and nickel

Triple bond C-N goes to NH2

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4
Q

Hydrolysis of nitriles

A

They undergo hydrolysis to form carboxylic acids (requires H2O and HCl)

Triple bond C-N goes to COOH

Also forms NH4Cl

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5
Q

Nucleophile

A

An atom/group that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

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