Chapter 16-Post-Reformation Science and Culture Flashcards Preview

World History And Cultures > Chapter 16-Post-Reformation Science and Culture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 16-Post-Reformation Science and Culture Deck (65):
1

One of the first important breakthroughs for modern science came in 1543 when _______________, a Polish astronomer, proposed a new way of understanding the universe, and said that the planets revolve around the sun and everything in the universe moves.

Nicolaus Copernicus

2

In Copernicus's day, the universe was believed to be ____________ (earth-centered).

Geocentric

3

Who was the man that discovered the three laws of planetary motion?

Johannes Kepler

4

What is the group of laws whose first law states that planets orbit the sun in oval-shaped paths called ellipses; second law explains why a planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun; and the third explains the relation between the time it takes a planet to orbit the sun and its distance from the sun?

Three laws of planetary motion

5

Who was the great Italian philosopher and scientist who discovered the law of uniform acceleration, and the laws of the pendulum?

Galileo Galilei

6

Galileo built a _________ to observe the skies to find out if Copernicus and Kepler were correct in their heliocentric view.

Telescope

7

Which law that Galileo discovered states that the speed of a body falling in a vacuum accelerates uniformly with time?

Law of uniform acceleration

8

Which laws that Galileo discovered explain the relationship between the time it takes a freely swinging mass to travel in its arc and the distance between the mass and its connecting point?

Laws of the pendulum

9

Who was the English philosopher who contributed more to the scientific progress of mankind than any other individual, discovered the universal law of gravitation, explained the three laws of motion, and is remembered as the "Father of Modern Science"?

Isaac Newton

10

What book did Isaac Newton publish in which he announced his discovery of the universal law of gravitation and also explained the three laws of motion?

Principia

11

What was one of Isaac Newton's discoveries that stated that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle of matter with a force directly proportional to its quantity of matter, decreasing as the distance increases?

Universal law of gravitation

12

What was one of Isaac Newton's discoveries that deals with the concepts of inertia, acceleration's relationship to physical force, and action and reaction to force?

Three laws of motion

13

Newton is remembered as the:

"Father of Modern Science"

14

In 1704, Isaac Newton published __________, a book about the nature of light.

Opticks

15

Who was known as the "Father of Anatomy" because he published the first complete description of the human body?

Andreas Vesalius

16

Who published De Magneta, the first great English science book?

William Gilbert

17

Who was the Scottish mathematician and Bible scholar who invented logarithms and decimal notation?

John Napier

18

Who was the English philosopher who formulated the modern scientific method?

Francis Bacon

19

Who was the English physician who discovered the circulation of blood in the human body?

William Harvey

20

Who was the French mathematician who invented an accurate scale for measuring lines and angles?

Pierre Vermier

21

Who was the Frenchman who was known as the "Father of Modern Philosophy" and developed analytical geometry and worked in several other scientific fields?

René Descartes

22

Who was the French mathematician and philosopher who invented a calculating device that was a predecessor to modern calculators?

Blaise Pascal

23

Who was the English scientist and Christian who formulated his laws of gases, earning the title "Father of Modern Chemistry"?

Robert Boyle

24

Who was the English astronomer, mathematician, and experimental philosopher, who became the first to observe microscopic cells?

Robert Hooke

25

Who was the Dutch naturalist, known as the "Father of Microbiology" who designed and built simple microscopes and observed protozoa and anatomical functions?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

26

Who was the Englishman who was one of the greatest astronomers of his day, and correctly predicted the appearance of the comet which bears his name?

Edmund Halley

27

Who was Englishman, Puritan clergyman, and naturalist, who pioneered the science of taxonomy and originated the idea of species?

John Ray

28

Who was a devout Christian from Sweden who expanded John Ray's work of taxonomy, and established the modern system of biological classification?

Carolus Linnaeus

29

Who was the German who invented the mercury thermometer and developed the temperature scale that bears his name?

Gabriel Farenheit

30

Who was the Puritan clergyman who led in the formation of the Philosophical College?

John Wilkins

31

What was the thing the John Wilkins led in the formation of, which met regularly in London to conduct experiments and discuss scientific theories and most of its members were Puritans?

Philosophical College

32

What society was formed in London under the leadership of John Wilkins, and was the first permanent scientific society of the Modern Age?

The Royal Society

33

What was founded in 1666, and was largely supported by the Protestant Huguenots and the Jansenists?

French Academy of Science

34

What was the group of French Catholics who believed in salvation by God's grace and followed many Calvinist teachings called?

Jansenists

35

What were the scientists called during the Post-Reformation era?

Natural philosophers

36

What is the term that describes that the sun is the center of the planets?

Heliocentric

37

What is a work of superior excellence that has stood the test of time and is a work for people of all ages?

Classic

38

What is the greatest classic of all?

Word of God

39

Who was the leader of the Protestant Reformation, was a singer and composer who highly valued the educational and moral power of music, and his most original lasting musical achievements were his hymns known as chorales?

Martin Luther

40

What country became the music center of the world during the Post-Reformation?

Germany

41

Who was the most important composer before Bach who wrote a collection of madrigals?

Heinrich Schütz

42

What were Martin Luther's hymns known as?

Chorales

43

What are elaborate songs based on poems?

Madrigals

44

Who became one of history's greatest composers, who composed almost all the musical forms of his day, and some of his famous works include The Christmas Oratorio, St. Matthew Passion, The Well Tempered Clavier, and the Brandenburg Concertos?

Johann Sebastian Bach

45

What are some of Bach's famous works?

The Christmas Oratorio
St. Matthew Passion
The Well-Tempered Clavier
Brandenburg Concertos

46

Who was the man whose style was oratorio, his best-loved oratorio being The Messiah, in which the "Hallelujah Chorus" is in?

George Frederick Handel

47

What is a sacred choral work often using a biblical text?

Oratorio

48

What was the masterpiece by George Frederick Handel which he wrote in 24 days, and it's scriptural text presents the theme of redemption?

The Messiah

49

What was the choral piece in Handel's The Messiah that is perhaps the best-known choral piece in the world?

"Hallelujah Chorus"

50

Who was the "Father of the English Hymn" who revived the music of the church?

Isaac Watts

51

What is a spiritual song of praise?

Hymn

52

What are some examples of Watts's hymns that are still favorites today?

"When I Survey the Wondrous Cross"
"Joy to the World"
"O God Our Help in Ages Past"
"Alas, and Did My Savior Bleed"

53

What two musicians of the 18th century established the classical style?

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Franz Joseph Haydn

54

Who was the Austrian musician who wrote about 100 symphonies including the Surprise Symphony and two notable oratorios, The Creation and The Seasons?

Franz Joseph Haydn

55

What is a child of highly unusual talent or genius called?

Child prodigy

56

Who was the Austrian child prodigy who began music lessons at the age of four, and by the age of 13 had mastered all musical forms?

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

57

Who was the German composer who wrote several concerts and piano sonatas including the famous Moonlight Sonata and his symphonies included the Fifth Symphony and the Ninth Symphony?

Ludwig van Beethoven

58

What is a long piano solo?

Piano sonata

59

What is perhaps Beethoven's best-known symphony?

Fifth Symphony

60

Which one of Beethoven symphonies is often referred to as the Ode to Joy and employees of course and soloists in the finale and was his last and most unusual symphony?

Ninth Symphony

61

Who was the artist of the 16th century in Germany who learned the art of wood-cutting and his most popular work is his drawing Praying Hands?

Albrecht Dürer

62

What is the art of making prints by engraving designs on the wooden blocks?

Woodcutting

63

What is Albrecht Dürer's popular drawing?

Praying Hands

64

Who was the greatest of the Dutch masters, was one of the greatest painters of all times, and used his art to probe into the soul of a man?

Rembrandt van Rijn

65

Who was the German artist who is one of the greatest portrait painters of all times, and was the last of the German Renaissance painters and certainly one of the best?

Hans Holbein the Younger