Flashcards in Chapter 16 Retroperitoneum Fill in the Blank Deck (41):
The retroperitoneal space is the area between the posterior portion of the ______ and the ______ abdominal wall muscles.
The retroperitoneal space is subdivided into three spaces: the _______ space, the _______ space, and the _________ space.
anterior pararenal, perirenal, posterior pararenal
The _____ space surrounds the kidney, adrenal, and perirenal fat.
The ________ space includes the duodenum, pancreas, and ascending and transverse colon.
The ________ space includes the iliopsoas muscle, ureter, and branches of the the inferior vena cava and their lymphatics.
The right adrenal is more _____ to the kidney, whereas the left adrenal is more _____ to the kidney.
The right renal artery crosses ______ to the crus and _____ to the inferior vena cava at the level of the right kidney.
The _____ muscle, the fascia of which merges with the posterior transversalis fascia, makes up the medial border of this posterior space.
The male sex hormones are _______ , and the female sex hormones are ________.
Hypofunction of the adrenal cortex in humans is called ______ disease.
The steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex fall into the following three main categories: _______, _________, and _______.
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, sex hormones.
________ regulate electrolyte metabolism.
The principle mineralocorticoids is _______.
_________ play a principal role in carbohydrate metabolism.
The primary glucocorticoids are _______ and _______.
Adrenal tumors in women can promote secondary _____ characteristics.
The adrenal cortex is controlled by _________ hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are amines, sometimes referred to as ________ , that elevate the blood pressure.
Because the _____ ligament attachments, collections in the right posterior subphrenic space cannot extend between the bare area of the liver and the diaphragm.
The pleural fluid tends to distribute _______ in the chest.
Subcapular liver and splenic collections are seen when they are _____ to the diaphragm unilaterally and conform to the shape of an organ capsule.
A mass is confirmed to be within the retroperitoneal cavity when anterior renal displacement or anterior displacement of the dilated _______ can be documented.
The mass interposted ______or superiorly to the kidneys can be located either inraperitoneally or retroperitoneally.
Fatty and collagenous connective tissue in the perirenal or anterior pararenal space produce echos that are best demonstrated on _______ scans.
Retroperitoneal lesions displace echos _______ and cranially.
Hepatic and subhepatic lesions produce _______ and posterior displacement.
A large, right-sided retroperitoneal mass rotates the intrahepatic portal veins to the ______.
The peritoneal cavity is made up of multiple peritoneal ligaments and folds that connect the _____ to each other and to the abdominopelvic _____.
Within the cavity are found the lesser and greater _______, the _______, and multiple fluid spaces (lesser sac, perihepatic and subphrenic spaces).
The _______ is a smooth membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity and is reflected over the contained organs.
The part that lines the walls of the cavity is the _____ peritoneum, whereas the part covering the abdominal organs to a greater or lesser extent is the ______ peritoneum.
The general peritoneal cavity is known as the ______ sac of the peritoneum.
With the development of the stomach and the spleen, a smaller sac, called the _____ sac (omental bursa), is the peritoneal recess posterior to the stomach.
This sac communicates with the greater sac through a small vertical opening known as the ______ foramen.
When the patient is lying supine, the lowest part of the body is the _____.
A double layer of peritoneum extending from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach is known as the _____ omentum.
The _____ omentum is an apron-like fold of peritoneum that hangs from the greater curvature of the stomach.
Ligaments on the right side of the liver form the ______ and ______ spaces.
The subphrenic space is divided into right and left components by the ______ ligaments.
The _______ hepatis ascends from the umbilicus to the umbilical notch of the liver within the free margin of the falciform ligament before coursing within the liver.