Flashcards in Chapter 16 Sensory and Somatic Motor Pathways Deck (124):
What provides the CNS with information about the internal and external environment of the body?
When do sensory receptors pass information to the CNS?
When stimulated, a sensory receptor passes information to the CNS in the form ______ _________ that travels along the axon of a sensory neuron.
What is the conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal environment?
What is the conscious interpretation of sensations performed mainly by the cerebral cortex?
Name the 6 General Sensory Receptors
(hint: the gang bang)
Name the 5 Special Senses
* Olfaction (smell)
* Vision (sight)
* Gustation (taste)
* Equilibrium (balance)
What does Receptor Specificity mean?
Each receptor has a characteristic sensitivity
What monitors the receptive field?
a single receptor cell
If the receptor field is larger, does it make it easier or more difficult to localize a stimulus?
(remember there is only one receptor cell per field)
What is adaptation when dealing with the nervous system?
When your nervous system quickly adapts to stimuli that are constant and painless
What does the frequency and pattern of an action potential tell us about the stimulus causing it?
the strength, duration, and variation of stimulus
A decrease in amplitude in generator potential or receptor potential=
reduction in sensitivity
(in the presence of constant maintained stimulus)
Tonic receptors are always ______.
Phasic receptors are normally ________.
(opposite of Tonic receptors)
When do Phasic receptors become active (only for a short time)?
when a change occurs
Which type of receptor will provide information about the intensity and the rate of change of a stimulus? Tonic receptors or Phasic receptors?
Which type of sensory receptor, tonic or phasic, is a slow-adapting receptor?
Which type of sensory receptor, tonic or phasic, will remind you of an injury long after the initial damage has occured?
Which type of sensory receptors, tonic or phasic, are fast-adapting receptors?
What is the name for any kind of sensory receptor that provides info about the external environment?
What is the name for any kind of sensory receptor that provides information regarding body position, muscle length & tension, and position & movement of joints?
What do you call the sensory receptors that monitor visceral organs and functions?
There is a detailed classification scheme, that divides the sensory receptors into 6 types by the nature of the stimulus that excites them, name all 6 and their stimulus
* Nociceptors (pain)
* Thermoreceptors (temperature)
* Mechanoreceptors (physical distortion)
* Chemoreceptors (chemical concentration)
* Osmoreceptors (senses changes in osmotic pressure)
* Photoreceptors (light)
What do you call the bare dendrites that are associated with pain, thermal, tickle, itch, and some touch sensations?
free nerve endings
What do you call the dendrites of sensory receptors that are enclosed in connective tissue capsules for pressure, vibration, and some touch sensations?
Encapsulated Nerve endings
What is the name for the receptor cells (special cells) that synapse with first order sensory neurons; located in the retina of the eye (photoreceptors), inner ear (hair cells), and taste buds of tongue (gustatory receptor cells)?
What type of receptors are located at or near the bodie's surface, and convey visual, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, thermal, and pain sensations?
Name the type of receptors that are found in blood vessels, visceral organs, and the nervous system. These put off impulses that are not consciously perceived but occasionally might be felt as pain or pressure
Name the type of receptors that are located in the muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear; they provide info about body position, muscle length and tension, position and motion of joints, and equilibrium (balance)
Name the receptor that detects mechanical stimuli and also provides sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, hearing and equilibrium
Name the receptors that monitors the stretching of blood vessels and internal organs
Name the receptors that detect changes in temperature
Name the receptors that respond to painful stimuli resulting from physical or chemical damage to tissue
Name the type of receptor that detects light that strikes the retina of the eye
Name the receptor that detects chemicals in the mouth (taste), nose (smell), and body fluids
What is the name of the type of receptor that senses osmotic pressure of body fluids?
(hint: easier than it seems)
What is another name for nociceptor?
Are nociceptors rare or common?
What area of the skin are nociceptors found in?
Other than the skin, name the 3 areas that nociceptors are found in.
* joint capsules
* within peristea of bone
* around the walls of blood vessels
What type of dendrites do nociceptors have?
free nerve endings with large receptive fields
What 3 things may nociceptors be sensitive to?
* Temperature extremes
* Mechanical Damage
* Dissolved Chemicals (released by injured cells)
Nociceptors have 2 types of axons, what are they?
Type A and Type C fibers
prickling, acute, sharp pain caused by something like an injection, or the skin being cut by a knife are sensations carried by myelinated type A fibers of nociceptors and are called what type of pain?
(hint: name has to do with speed)
The type C fibers of nociceptors cause burning, aching, or throbbing pain and is referred to as what type of pain?
(hint: name has to do with speed)
What is another name for Thermoreceptors?
Thermoreceptors are Free nerve endings located in the what 4 parts of the body?
* Dermis (of the skin)
* Skeletal Muscles
* The liver
* The hypothalamus
Temperature sensations from the thermoreceptors are conducted along the same pathways that carry what type of sensations?
What three places are temperature sensations sent to?
* The reticular formation
* The Thalamus
* The Primary Sensory Cortex (to a lesser extent)
What type of sensory receptors are sensitive to stimuli that distort their plasma membranes?
What type of ion channels do mechanoreceptors contain?
mechanically gated ion channels
Name the three classes of mechanoreceptors
1. Tactile receptors
One of the general sensory receptors is also one of the 3 classes of mechanoreceptors. This general sensory receptor is the most structurally and functionally complex. Name it
Which of the 3 classes of mechanoreceptors provides the sensation of touch, pressure, itch, tickle, and vibrations?
Which of the 3 mechanoreceptors detects pressure changes in the walls of blood vessels and in portions of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts?
Which of the 3 mechanoreceptors monitors the positions of joints and muscles and is the most complex of general sensory receptors?
Tactile Receptors have both fine touch and pressure receptors and crude touch and pressure receptors.
true or false?
Fine touch and pressure tactile receptors are extremely sensitive and have a receptive field, is it large or narrow?
Crude touch and pressure tactile receptors have a receptive field, is it large or narrow?
Which type of tactile receptor can provide detailed information about a source of stimulation including it's exact location , shape, size, texture, and movement. Fine touch or Crude touch?
Which type of tactile receptor gives little information about the stimulus, fine touch or crude touch?
Name the 6 classes of Tactile Receptors
(all in the skin, discs, corpuscles..plexus)
* free nerve ending
* Root Hair Plexus
* Tactile Discs (Merkel discs)
* Tactile Corpuscles (Meissner's Corpuscles)
* Lamellated Corpuscles (Pacinian Corpuscles)
* Ruffini Corpuscles
Free nerve endings have tonic receptors with small receptive fields.
true or false?
Which tactile receptor monitors movements across the body surface wherever hairs are located?
Root hair plexus (nerve endings)
Where are free nerve endings located?
situated between epidermal cells
Tactile discs (Merkel Discs), have extremely sensitive tonic receptors.
true or false?
Tactile Discs (Merkel Discs) are fine touch and pressure receptors.
true or false?
What type of tactile receptor (of the 6) do we have a lot of in our fingertips, hands, lips, and external genitalia?
Tactile discs (Merkel Discs)
Tactile Corpuscles (Meissner's Corpuscles) are similat to the Tactile Discs (Merkel Discs) in that they are also fine touch and pressure receptors, but they are also associated with one more thing, what is it?
Are tactile corpuscles (meissner's corpuscles) small of large structures?
Which tactile receptors are found abundantly in the eyelids, lips, fingertips, nipples, and external genitalia?
Tactile Corpuscles (Meissners)
Which Tactile Receptor (of the 6) is sensitive to deep pressure, pulsing, or high frequency vibrations?
Lamellated Corpuscles (PacinianCorpuscle)
Which Tactile Receptor (of the 6) is located in a ton of random spots in the body including throughout the dermis, subcutaneous, superficial & deep fascia, joint capsules, tendons, muscles, external genitalia, pancreas, walls of urethra & urinary bladder?
Which tactile receptor is the one we didn't really ever talk about before, it's sensitive to pressure and distortion of the skin and is located in the reticular (deep) dermis, ligaments, & tendons?
Which receptors are found in the walls of distensible organs? (blood vessels, portions of respiratory, digestive, & urinary tracts?
These receptors are purely somatic sensory. There are no ______________ in the visceral organs of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Is most info processed by proprioceptors processed at a conscious or subconscious level?
Name the 3 major groups of proprioceptors
* Muscle Spindles
* Golgi Tendon organs
* Receptors in joint capsules (Joint Kinesthetic receptors)
What is located between skeletal muscle and it's tendon?
Golgi Tendon Organs
What stimulates Golgi Tendon Organs?
tension in tendon
What monitors the external tension developed during muscle contraction?
Golgi Tendon Organs
Which receptors are located within and around articular capsule of synovial joints?
Receptors in Joint Capsules (Joint Kinesthetic Receptors)
Do the Receptors in Joint Capsules have free nerve endings that detect pressure, tension, and movement at the joint?
What reflex do Muscle spindles trigger?
they trigger the stretch reflex
What do muscle spindles monitor?
skeletal muscle length
What type of receptors respond only to water-soluble or lipid-soluble substances dissolved in surrounding fluid?
chemoreceptors exhibit both peripheral and central adaptation.
true or false?
Which type of receptors monitor pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in arterial blood?
What two areas are peripheral chemoreceptors located?
(dealing with arterial blood)
* Carotid bodies (sides of neck)
* Aortic bodies
What type of pathways carry sensory information from the skin and the musculature of the body wall, head, neck, and limbs?
Somatic Sensory Pathways
Which "Order Neuron" is involved when the axon of the sensory neuron synapses on an interneuron in the CNS?
(interneuron could be in brain stem or spinal cord)
Which "Order-Neuron" is the sensory neuron that delivers sensations to the CNS?
When does the Third-Order Neuron get involved? and what happens?
If the sensation reaches our awareness, the second-order neuron synapses on a third-order neuron in the Thalamus
Where is the cell body of a First-Order general sensory neuron located?
Dorsal root ganglion
Cranial Nerve ganglion
Where would the Second-Order Neuron be located?
spinal cord or brain stem
Where is the Third-Order Neuron located?
Name the 4 major Somatic Sensory pathways
1. the spinothalamic pathway
2. the posterior column pathway
3. the spinocerebellar pathway
4. the trigeminothalamic pathway
Which Somatic Sensory Pathway provides conscious sensations of poorly localized (crude) touch, pressure, pain, and temp?
Which Somatic Sensory pathway carries sensations of highly localized (fine) touch, pressure, vibration, and proprioception?
Posterior Column Pathway
In which Somatic Sensory pathway does the Cerebellum receive proprioceptive information about position of Skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints?
Which Somatic Sensory Pathway conveys nerve impulses for most somatic sensations: tactile, thermal, pain, proprioceptive, from the face, nasal cavity and teeth, to the cerebral cortex?
Most Somatic Sensory information is relayed to what part of the brain for processing?
A small fraction of arriving sensory information, is projected to the ________ ______ and reaches our awareness
What type of receptors monitor Visceral Sensory Pathways?
The monitoring of Visceral tissues and organs by the Interoceptors, happens primarily within which two cavities?
Name the 5 types of interoceptors
* Tactile Receptors
What are we referring to when we mention first-order, second-order, and third-order neurons ?
The 3 neuron sets the pathway consists of
What does the SNS or the Somatic Motor System control?
contractions of skeletal muscle
Name the three integrated motor pathways of the SNS (Somatic Motor System)
1. Corticospinal Pathway
2. Medial Pathway
3. Lateral Pathway
Which integrated motor pathway of the Somatic Motor System is sometimes called the pyramidal system and provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles?
Which Integrated Motor Pathway of the Somatic Motor Sysytem (SNS) is primarily concerned with control of muscle tone and gross movements of neck, trunk, and proximal limb muscles?
Which Integrated Motor Pathway of the Somatic Motor System (SNS) is primarily concerned with control of muscle tone and more precise movements of distal parts of limbs?
What is the only "action" the lateral pathway has?
subconscious regulation of upper limb muscles tone and movement
The Medial Pathway has 3 "Actions". It is responsible for subconscious regulation of .....................
Name the three actions
* balance and muscle tone
* eye, head, neck, and upper limb position in response to visual and auditory stimuli
* reflex activity
What is the action or process of converting something and especially energy or a message into another form.
What do you call the point beyond which a stimulus causes pain.
What do you call the maximum level of pain that a person is able to tolerate.
What do you call the Potential caused by a stimulus to a nerve ending?
What do you call Potential caused by a stimulus to a receptor cell?
What is another name for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?
ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease
Name the disease that is a progressive, degenerative disorder, that affects both upper and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebral hemispheres. It causes atrophy of associated skeletal muscle
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
What is the name for the rare condition in which the brain fails to develop above the midbrain or the lower decephalon?