Chapter 16 Sensory and Somatic Motor Pathways Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Sensory and Somatic Motor Pathways Deck (124):
1

What provides the CNS with information about the internal and external environment of the body?

Sensory receptors

2

When do sensory receptors pass information to the CNS?

when stimulated

3

When stimulated, a sensory receptor passes information to the CNS in the form ______ _________ that travels along the axon of a sensory neuron.

action potential

4

What is the conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal environment?

Sensation

5

What is the conscious interpretation of sensations performed mainly by the cerebral cortex?

Perception

6

Name the 6 General Sensory Receptors

(hint: the gang bang)

* Temperature
* Pain
* Touch
* Pressure
* Vibration
* Proprioception

7

Name the 5 Special Senses

* Olfaction (smell)
* Vision (sight)
* Gustation (taste)
* Equilibrium (balance)
* Hearing

8

What does Receptor Specificity mean?

Each receptor has a characteristic sensitivity

9

What monitors the receptive field?

a single receptor cell

10

If the receptor field is larger, does it make it easier or more difficult to localize a stimulus?

more difficult
(remember there is only one receptor cell per field)

11

What is adaptation when dealing with the nervous system?

When your nervous system quickly adapts to stimuli that are constant and painless

12

What does the frequency and pattern of an action potential tell us about the stimulus causing it?

the strength, duration, and variation of stimulus

13

A decrease in amplitude in generator potential or receptor potential=

reduction in sensitivity
(in the presence of constant maintained stimulus)

14

Tonic receptors are always ______.

active

15

Phasic receptors are normally ________.
(opposite of Tonic receptors)

inactive

16

When do Phasic receptors become active (only for a short time)?

when a change occurs

17

Which type of receptor will provide information about the intensity and the rate of change of a stimulus? Tonic receptors or Phasic receptors?

Phasic receptors

18

Which type of sensory receptor, tonic or phasic, is a slow-adapting receptor?

Tonic receptors

19

Which type of sensory receptor, tonic or phasic, will remind you of an injury long after the initial damage has occured?

Tonic receptors

20

Which type of sensory receptors, tonic or phasic, are fast-adapting receptors?

Phasic receptors

21

What is the name for any kind of sensory receptor that provides info about the external environment?

Exteroceptors

22

What is the name for any kind of sensory receptor that provides information regarding body position, muscle length & tension, and position & movement of joints?

Proprioceptors

23

What do you call the sensory receptors that monitor visceral organs and functions?

Interoceptors

24

There is a detailed classification scheme, that divides the sensory receptors into 6 types by the nature of the stimulus that excites them, name all 6 and their stimulus

* Nociceptors (pain)
* Thermoreceptors (temperature)
* Mechanoreceptors (physical distortion)
* Chemoreceptors (chemical concentration)
* Osmoreceptors (senses changes in osmotic pressure)
* Photoreceptors (light)

25

What do you call the bare dendrites that are associated with pain, thermal, tickle, itch, and some touch sensations?

free nerve endings

26

What do you call the dendrites of sensory receptors that are enclosed in connective tissue capsules for pressure, vibration, and some touch sensations?

Encapsulated Nerve endings

27

What is the name for the receptor cells (special cells) that synapse with first order sensory neurons; located in the retina of the eye (photoreceptors), inner ear (hair cells), and taste buds of tongue (gustatory receptor cells)?

Separate Cells

28

What type of receptors are located at or near the bodie's surface, and convey visual, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, thermal, and pain sensations?

Exteroceptors

29

Name the type of receptors that are found in blood vessels, visceral organs, and the nervous system. These put off impulses that are not consciously perceived but occasionally might be felt as pain or pressure

Interoceptors

30

Name the type of receptors that are located in the muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear; they provide info about body position, muscle length and tension, position and motion of joints, and equilibrium (balance)

Proprioceptors

31

Name the receptor that detects mechanical stimuli and also provides sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, hearing and equilibrium

Mechanoreceptors

32

Name the receptors that monitors the stretching of blood vessels and internal organs

Mechanoreceptors

33

Name the receptors that detect changes in temperature

Thermoreceptors

34

Name the receptors that respond to painful stimuli resulting from physical or chemical damage to tissue

Nociceptors

35

Name the type of receptor that detects light that strikes the retina of the eye

Photoreceptors

36

Name the receptor that detects chemicals in the mouth (taste), nose (smell), and body fluids

Chemoreceptors

37

What is the name of the type of receptor that senses osmotic pressure of body fluids?
(hint: easier than it seems)

Osmoreceptors

38

What is another name for nociceptor?

pain receptor

39

Are nociceptors rare or common?

common

40

What area of the skin are nociceptors found in?

superficial portions

41

Other than the skin, name the 3 areas that nociceptors are found in.

* joint capsules
* within peristea of bone
* around the walls of blood vessels

42

What type of dendrites do nociceptors have?

free nerve endings with large receptive fields

43

What 3 things may nociceptors be sensitive to?

* Temperature extremes
* Mechanical Damage
* Dissolved Chemicals (released by injured cells)

44

Nociceptors have 2 types of axons, what are they?

Type A and Type C fibers

45

prickling, acute, sharp pain caused by something like an injection, or the skin being cut by a knife are sensations carried by myelinated type A fibers of nociceptors and are called what type of pain?
(hint: name has to do with speed)

Fast Pain

46

The type C fibers of nociceptors cause burning, aching, or throbbing pain and is referred to as what type of pain?
(hint: name has to do with speed)

Slow pain

47

What is another name for Thermoreceptors?

Temperature Receptors

48

Thermoreceptors are Free nerve endings located in the what 4 parts of the body?

* Dermis (of the skin)
* Skeletal Muscles
* The liver
* The hypothalamus

49

Temperature sensations from the thermoreceptors are conducted along the same pathways that carry what type of sensations?

pain

50

What three places are temperature sensations sent to?

* The reticular formation
* The Thalamus
* The Primary Sensory Cortex (to a lesser extent)

51

What type of sensory receptors are sensitive to stimuli that distort their plasma membranes?

mechanoreceptors

52

What type of ion channels do mechanoreceptors contain?

mechanically gated ion channels

53

Name the three classes of mechanoreceptors

1. Tactile receptors
2. Baroreceptors
3. Proprioceptors

54

One of the general sensory receptors is also one of the 3 classes of mechanoreceptors. This general sensory receptor is the most structurally and functionally complex. Name it

Proprioceptors

55

Which of the 3 classes of mechanoreceptors provides the sensation of touch, pressure, itch, tickle, and vibrations?

Tactile receptors

56

Which of the 3 mechanoreceptors detects pressure changes in the walls of blood vessels and in portions of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts?

Baroreceptors

57

Which of the 3 mechanoreceptors monitors the positions of joints and muscles and is the most complex of general sensory receptors?

Proprioceptors

58

Tactile Receptors have both fine touch and pressure receptors and crude touch and pressure receptors.
true or false?

true

59

Fine touch and pressure tactile receptors are extremely sensitive and have a receptive field, is it large or narrow?

narrow

60

Crude touch and pressure tactile receptors have a receptive field, is it large or narrow?

large

61

Which type of tactile receptor can provide detailed information about a source of stimulation including it's exact location , shape, size, texture, and movement. Fine touch or Crude touch?

fine touch

62

Which type of tactile receptor gives little information about the stimulus, fine touch or crude touch?

Crude Touch

63

Name the 6 classes of Tactile Receptors
(all in the skin, discs, corpuscles..plexus)

* free nerve ending
* Root Hair Plexus
* Tactile Discs (Merkel discs)
* Tactile Corpuscles (Meissner's Corpuscles)
* Lamellated Corpuscles (Pacinian Corpuscles)
* Ruffini Corpuscles

64

Free nerve endings have tonic receptors with small receptive fields.
true or false?

true

65

Which tactile receptor monitors movements across the body surface wherever hairs are located?

Root hair plexus (nerve endings)

66

Where are free nerve endings located?

situated between epidermal cells

67

Tactile discs (Merkel Discs), have extremely sensitive tonic receptors.
true or false?

true

68

Tactile Discs (Merkel Discs) are fine touch and pressure receptors.
true or false?

true

69

What type of tactile receptor (of the 6) do we have a lot of in our fingertips, hands, lips, and external genitalia?

Tactile discs (Merkel Discs)

70

Tactile Corpuscles (Meissner's Corpuscles) are similat to the Tactile Discs (Merkel Discs) in that they are also fine touch and pressure receptors, but they are also associated with one more thing, what is it?

low-frequency vibration

71

Are tactile corpuscles (meissner's corpuscles) small of large structures?

large

72

Which tactile receptors are found abundantly in the eyelids, lips, fingertips, nipples, and external genitalia?

Tactile Corpuscles (Meissners)

73

Which Tactile Receptor (of the 6) is sensitive to deep pressure, pulsing, or high frequency vibrations?

Lamellated Corpuscles (PacinianCorpuscle)

74

Which Tactile Receptor (of the 6) is located in a ton of random spots in the body including throughout the dermis, subcutaneous, superficial & deep fascia, joint capsules, tendons, muscles, external genitalia, pancreas, walls of urethra & urinary bladder?

Lamellated Corpuscles

75

Which tactile receptor is the one we didn't really ever talk about before, it's sensitive to pressure and distortion of the skin and is located in the reticular (deep) dermis, ligaments, & tendons?

Ruffini corpuscles

76

Which receptors are found in the walls of distensible organs? (blood vessels, portions of respiratory, digestive, & urinary tracts?

Baroreceptors

77

These receptors are purely somatic sensory. There are no ______________ in the visceral organs of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

proprioceptors

78

Is most info processed by proprioceptors processed at a conscious or subconscious level?

subconscious

79

Name the 3 major groups of proprioceptors

* Muscle Spindles
* Golgi Tendon organs
* Receptors in joint capsules (Joint Kinesthetic receptors)

80

What is located between skeletal muscle and it's tendon?

Golgi Tendon Organs

81

What stimulates Golgi Tendon Organs?

tension in tendon

82

What monitors the external tension developed during muscle contraction?

Golgi Tendon Organs

83

Which receptors are located within and around articular capsule of synovial joints?

Receptors in Joint Capsules (Joint Kinesthetic Receptors)

84

Do the Receptors in Joint Capsules have free nerve endings that detect pressure, tension, and movement at the joint?

yes

85

What reflex do Muscle spindles trigger?

they trigger the stretch reflex

86

What do muscle spindles monitor?

skeletal muscle length

87

What type of receptors respond only to water-soluble or lipid-soluble substances dissolved in surrounding fluid?

chemoreceptors

88

chemoreceptors exhibit both peripheral and central adaptation.
true or false?

true

89

Which type of receptors monitor pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in arterial blood?

Chemoreceptors

90

What two areas are peripheral chemoreceptors located?
(dealing with arterial blood)

* Carotid bodies (sides of neck)
* Aortic bodies

91

What type of pathways carry sensory information from the skin and the musculature of the body wall, head, neck, and limbs?

Somatic Sensory Pathways

92

Which "Order Neuron" is involved when the axon of the sensory neuron synapses on an interneuron in the CNS?
(interneuron could be in brain stem or spinal cord)

Second-Order Neuron

93

Which "Order-Neuron" is the sensory neuron that delivers sensations to the CNS?

First-Order Neuron

94

When does the Third-Order Neuron get involved? and what happens?

If the sensation reaches our awareness, the second-order neuron synapses on a third-order neuron in the Thalamus

95

Where is the cell body of a First-Order general sensory neuron located?
(hint: ganglion)

Dorsal root ganglion
or
Cranial Nerve ganglion

96

Where would the Second-Order Neuron be located?

spinal cord or brain stem

97

Where is the Third-Order Neuron located?

thalamus

98

Name the 4 major Somatic Sensory pathways

1. the spinothalamic pathway
2. the posterior column pathway
3. the spinocerebellar pathway
4. the trigeminothalamic pathway

99

Which Somatic Sensory Pathway provides conscious sensations of poorly localized (crude) touch, pressure, pain, and temp?

Spinothalamic Pathway

100

Which Somatic Sensory pathway carries sensations of highly localized (fine) touch, pressure, vibration, and proprioception?

Posterior Column Pathway

101

In which Somatic Sensory pathway does the Cerebellum receive proprioceptive information about position of Skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints?

Spinocerebellar Pathway

102

Which Somatic Sensory Pathway conveys nerve impulses for most somatic sensations: tactile, thermal, pain, proprioceptive, from the face, nasal cavity and teeth, to the cerebral cortex?

Trigeminothalamic Pathway

103

Most Somatic Sensory information is relayed to what part of the brain for processing?

Thalamus

104

A small fraction of arriving sensory information, is projected to the ________ ______ and reaches our awareness

cerebral cortex

105

What type of receptors monitor Visceral Sensory Pathways?

Interoceptors

106

The monitoring of Visceral tissues and organs by the Interoceptors, happens primarily within which two cavities?

*thoracic cavity
*abdominopelvic cavity

107

Name the 5 types of interoceptors

* Nociceptors
* Thermoreceptors
* Tactile Receptors
* Baroreceptors
* Chemoreceptors

108

What are we referring to when we mention first-order, second-order, and third-order neurons ?

The 3 neuron sets the pathway consists of

109

What does the SNS or the Somatic Motor System control?

contractions of skeletal muscle

110

Name the three integrated motor pathways of the SNS (Somatic Motor System)

1. Corticospinal Pathway
2. Medial Pathway
3. Lateral Pathway

111

Which integrated motor pathway of the Somatic Motor System is sometimes called the pyramidal system and provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles?

Corticospinal Pathway

112

Which Integrated Motor Pathway of the Somatic Motor Sysytem (SNS) is primarily concerned with control of muscle tone and gross movements of neck, trunk, and proximal limb muscles?

Medial Pathway

113

Which Integrated Motor Pathway of the Somatic Motor System (SNS) is primarily concerned with control of muscle tone and more precise movements of distal parts of limbs?

Lateral Pathway

114

What is the only "action" the lateral pathway has?

subconscious regulation of upper limb muscles tone and movement

115

The Medial Pathway has 3 "Actions". It is responsible for subconscious regulation of .....................
Name the three actions

* balance and muscle tone
* eye, head, neck, and upper limb position in response to visual and auditory stimuli
* reflex activity

116

What is the action or process of converting something and especially energy or a message into another form.

transduction

117

What do you call the point beyond which a stimulus causes pain.

pain threshold

118

What do you call the maximum level of pain that a person is able to tolerate.

pain tolerance

119

What do you call the Potential caused by a stimulus to a nerve ending?

generator potential

120

What do you call Potential caused by a stimulus to a receptor cell?

receptor potential

121

What is another name for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?

ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease

122

Name the disease that is a progressive, degenerative disorder, that affects both upper and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebral hemispheres. It causes atrophy of associated skeletal muscle

ALS
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

123

What is the name for the rare condition in which the brain fails to develop above the midbrain or the lower decephalon?

Anencephaly

124

Name the STD that is caused by Treponema pallidum where in the primary stage you will get sores but in the later stages can cause progressive degeneration of the posterior column pathway, spinocerebellar pathway, and dorsal roots of the spinal cord

Syphillis