chapter 16 Spelling Words Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > chapter 16 Spelling Words > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 16 Spelling Words Deck (72):
1

testosterone

-the male hormone secreted by the testicles
-responsible to the secondary sex characteristics that occur with the onset of puberty that include deepening of the voice, facial hair, and growth of pubic hair

2

testes

-male sex glands
-also called the male gonads

3

scrotum

-where the testicles live
-a sac posterior to the penis and suspended from the perineum

4

perineum

-the area between the scrotum and the anus in the male

5

testicle

-a singular male sex organ
-it remains suspended in the scrotal sac by a spermatic cord that contains blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, and the vas deferens
-must remain suspended from the scrotal sac to function normally
-consists of specialized coils of tiny tubules responsible for the production of sperm

6

seminiferous tubules

-the specialized coils within the testicle
-testosterone is secreted from the interstitial tissue between these tubules
They are responsible for the production of sperm

7

epididymis

-a tightly coiled tubule that resembles a comma
-here is where sperm matures (become fertile and motile)
-in the lower part of the epididymis the mature sperm is stored

8

vas deferens

-also called the ductus deferens
-narrow, straight tube that transports sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
-merges with the adjacent seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct

9

seminal vesicles

-secretes a thick, yellowish fluid that is known as seminal fluid into the vas deferens, which constitutes a large part of the volume of semen

10

semen

-a combination of sperm and various secretions expelled from the body through the urethra

11

ejaculation

-the process of ejecting, or expelling, the semen from the male urethra

12

prostate gland

-just below the urinary bladder and surrounds the base of the urethra
-its ducts transport thin, milky-colored, alkaline secretions that enhance the motility of the sperm and help to neutralize the secretions within the vagina
-the prostate's muscular action aids in expelling the semen from the body

13

Cowper's glands

-pea-sized glands that secrete fluids that nourish the sperm and enhance their motility
-these fluids also make up the rest of the volume of the semen
-they empty into the urethra just before it extends though the penis
-also known as the bulbourethral glands

14

asymptomatic

-without symptoms

15

chancre

-a skin lesion, usually of primary syphilis, that begins at the site of infection as a small raised area and develops into a red painless ulcer with a scooped-out appearance
-also known as a venereal sore

16

cryosurgery

-use of subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue
-as low as -160 degrees is used
-when the probe touches the tissues of the body, the moist tissues adhere to the cold metal of the probe and freeze

17

debridement

-the removal of dirt, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound or a burn to prevent infection and promote healing

18

dormant

inactive

19

dysuria

painful urination

20

epididymectomy

-surgical removal of the epididymis

21

epididymitis

-acute or chronic inflammation of the epididymis
-can be the result of a urinary tract infection, prolonged use of indwelling catheters, or venereal disease in the male

22

exudate

-fluid, pus, or serum slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in cell membranes

23

foreskin

-a loose, retractable fold of skin covering the tip of the penis
-also called the prepuce

24

glans penis

-the tip of the penis

25

gonad

-the male sex glands, which are called the testes
-primary organs of the male reproductive system

26

malaise

-a vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort, often marking the onset of disease

27

malodorous

-foul smelling
-having a bad odor

28

mucopurulent

-a combination of mucus and pus

29

opportunistic infection

-an infection caused by normally nondisease-producing organisms that sets up in a host whose resistance has been decreased by surgery, illnesses, and disorders such as AIDS

30

orchidopexy

--surgical fixation of the testicle
-involves making an incision into the inguinal canal, locating the testicle, and bringing it back down into the scrotal sac
orchi/o=testicle orchid/o=testicle -pexy=surgical fixation

31

palpation

-an examination technique that involves feeling parts of the body with the hands

32

pelvic inflammatory disease

-inflammation of the upper female genital tract (cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes)
-also known as salpingitis
-may be associated with transmitted diseases

33

prepuce

-the foreskin

34

prophylactic

-any agent or regimen that contributes to the prevention of infection and disease

35

prostatectomy

-removal of all or part of the prostate gland

36

purulent

-producing or containing pus

37

rectoscope

-an instrument used to view the rectum that has a cutting and cauterizing (burning) loop
-also known as a proctoscope
-it has a light and lens attached for viewing

38

residual urine

-urine that remains in the bladder after urination

39

salpingitis

-inflammation of the fallopian tubes
-also known as pelvic inflammatory disease
salping/o=eustachian tubes; also refers to the fallopian tubes -itis=inflammation

40

spermatozoan

- a mature male germ cell
-also known as spermatozoon

41

spermatozoon

-spermatozoan
-a mature male germ cell

42

urethra

-a small tubular structure extending the length of the penis that transports urine from the bladder and semen when ejaculated to the outside of the body

43

urethritis

-inflammation of the urethra

44

vesicles

-blisters
-small, raised skin lesions containing clear fluid

45

anorchism

-the absence of one or more testicles

46

balanitis

-inflammation of the glans penis and the mucous membrane beneath it
-caused by irritation and invasion of microorganisms
balan/o=glans penis -itis=inflammation

47

benign prostatic hypertrophy

-a benign enlargement of the prostate gland, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra or neck of the bladder causing an obstruction of urine flow
-common in men over 50

48

cryptorchidism

-condition of undescended testicle (s)
-the absence of one or both testicles from the scrotum
-may be located in the abdominal cavity or in the inguinal canal
-surgery (orchiopexy) is necessary if it does not descend on its own
crypt/o=hidden orchid/o=testicle -ism=condition

49

epispadias

-a congenital defect where the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis at some point near the glans
-surgical correction with redirection of the opening is the treatment

50

hydrocele

-an accumulation of fluid in any saclike cavity or duct
-particularly the scrotal sac or along the spermatic cord
-caused by inflammation of the epididymis or testis or obstruction of lymphatic or venous flow w/in the spermatic cord
-treatment is removal of the fluid pouch
hydro=water -cele=swelling or herniation

51

hypospadias

-a congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of at the end
-treatment involves surgically redirecting the opening to its normal location

52

impotence

-inability of a male to achieve or sustain an erection of the penis
-causes: may be psychological or physiological

53

inguinal hernia

-a protrusion of a part of the intestine through a weakened spot in the muscles and membranes of the inguinal region of the abdomen
-the intestine pushes into and sometimes fills the entire scrotal sac in the male

54

orchitis

-inflammation of the testes due to a virus, bacterial infection, or injury
-may affect one or both testes
-typically occurs from the mumps virus
-if severe, can result in atrophy of the testicle

55

phimosis

-a tightness of the foreskin/prepuce of the penis that prevents it from being pulled back
-the opening narrows due to the tightness and may cause some urination difficulties
-usually congenital but can result from edema and inflammation
-treatment is curcumcision

56

premature ejaculation

-the discharge of seminal fluid prior to complete erection of the penis or immediately after the penis has entered the vaginal canal
-causes: psychological or physiological

57

prostatitis

-inflammation of the prostate gland
-may be acute or chronic and due to a bacterial infection

58

varicocele

-an abnormal dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord leading to the testicle
-often causes more discomfort than pain and most often occurs between ages of 15 to 25
-can lower sperm count b/c of the heat generated from the venous congestion

59

chlamydia

-an STD that causes inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis) and urethritis & epididymitis in men
-Symptoms: Men--discharge from the penis and burning & itching and burning sensation on urination; Women--often do not appear until complications occur as a result of the chlamydial infection, thick vaginal mucopurulent discharge (early), can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (which can cause infertility) if left untreated
-prevent: use latex condoms; treat: antibiotics

60

genital herpes

-a highly contagious viral infection of the male and female genitalia caused by herpes simplex virus
-also known as venereal herpes
-transmitted by direct contact w/ infected body secretions
-different from other STDs because it can spontaneously recur once aquired
-2 phases: active phase when symptoms are present and the virus can be spread; dormant phase when free of symptoms (some can still transmit during this phase)
-there is no cure and is linked to cervical cancer in women

61

genital warts

-small, cauliflower-like fleshy growths along the penis in men and in or near the vagina in women
-transmitted through sexual intercourse
-1-6month difference between infection and symptoms
-reoccurance is common; condoms can help but avoiding contact is advisable for those with lesions

62

gonorrhea

-a sexually transmitted bacterial (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) infection of the mucous membrane of the genital tract in men and women.
-spread by sexual intercourse or between a mother and infant during birth
-symptoms more obvious in the male: greenish-yellow purulent, dysuria and frequent urination (2-7 days after infection
-women can be asymptomatic or experience the same symptoms; as it spread, it can cause salpingitis
-treated with antibiotics; should be treated w/ chlamydia as they can occur simultaneously; infants are treated in the his eyes following birth

63

syphilis

-an STD with lesions that can affect any organ spread by sexual intercourse or mother to infant during birth
-highly contagious and caused by Treponema pallidum
-3 stages: *Primary--small red pustules known as chancre; highly contagious lesions appearing w/in 10 days to a few weeks; treat with antibiotics
*Secondary stage--appr. 2 months later as it spreads throughout the body; still highly contagious and can be treated with penicillin
*Tertiary stage--lesions are seen throughout the body; cannot be treated now with antibiotics; can lead to life-threatening disorders of the brain, spinal cord, & heart

64

trichomoniasis

-a sexually transmitted protozoal infection of the vagina, urethra, or prostate
-usually spread through sexual intercourse and affects appr. 15% of all sexually active people.
-Caused by Trichomonas vaginalis
-men are usually asymptotic but can has some symptoms; women have itching, burning, and malodorous discharge that is frothy and greenish-yellow
-treated with an anti-infective drug Fagyl (metronidazole)

65

castration

-surgical removal of the testicles in the male (or ovaries in the female)
-also known as orchidectomy or orchiectomy
-usually preformed to reduce the production and secretion of certain hormones that may encourage the growth of malignant (cancerous) cells in either the male or female
-the person is then sterile

66

circumcision

-a procedure to remove the prepuce (foreskin)
-more commonly done to infants than adults
-can be indicated by phimosis, unreplaceable retraction of a narrow foreskin, pain w/ erection or during intercourse, or recurrent balanitis
-guided forceps if most common method

67

cystoscopy

-the process of viewing the interior of the bladder by using a cystoscope
-it enters through the meatus
-detects tumors, inflammation, renal calculi, and structural irregularities, or obtaining biopsy samples

68

intravenous pyelogram

-(IVP), also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram
-a radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract
-a contrast dye is injected and X-rays are taken as it is filtrated by the kidneys

69

orchidectomy

-surgical removal of the testicle
-occurs when a testicle is no long functioning or palliative relief surgery for prostate gland cancer (it removes the testosterone to help reduce the spread of the cancer)

70

semen analysis

-assessment of volume, viscosity, sperm count, sperm motility, and % of any abnormal sperm
-may be used to determine fertility issues between couples or after a vasectomy to confirm male sterility

71

suprapubic prostatectomy

-surgical removal of the prostate gland through an incision into the abdominal wall, just above the pubic bone
-it is done when the prostate is deemed to large to fit through the urethra

72

vasectomy

-a surgical cutting and tying of the vas deferens to prevent the passage of sperm
-male sterilization