Flashcards in Chapter 16 Terms Deck (25):
The sequence of reactions that metabolizes one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate with the concomitant net production of two molecules of ATP.
The anaerobic processing of pyruvate to lactate.
Lactic acid fermentation
The anaerobic processing of pyruvate to ethanol.
The reuse of pyruvate and lactate to synthesize glucose.
Starch and glycogen are digested primarily by this pancreatic enzyme and to a lesser extent by the salivary form of the enzyme.
The transfer of the phosphoryl group from ATP to the hydroxyl group on carbon 6 of glucose is catalyzed by this enzyme.
Is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to an acceptor.
An allosteric enzyme that sets the pace of glycolysis and also plays a central role in the metabolism of many molecules in all parts of the body.
Polyphosphorylation is coupled to the oxidation of glyceraldegyde 3-phosphate by this intermediate.
ATP formation by phosphoryl transfer from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the intramolecular shift of a chemical group, in this case a phosphoryl group.
Has a high phosphoryl transfer potential.
Catalyzes the virtually irreversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenol-pyruvate to ADP.
An ATP-generating process in which organic compounds act both as the donor and as the acceptor of electrons.
Organisms that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.
A protein structural motif found in proteins that bind nucleotides, such as enzyme cofactors FAD, NAD, and NADP. The structure is composed of up to seven mostly parallel beta strands. The first two strands are connected by an α- helix.
It is the first irreversible reaction unique to the glycolytic pathway, which is the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
Glycolysis is accelerated when glucose is abundant.
Rapidly growing tumor cells that metabolize glucose to lactate even in the presence of oxygen.
The first step in gluconeogenesis is the carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate at the expense of a moleule of ATP, which is catalyzed by _______ _______.
A covalently attached prosthetic group, which serves as a carrier of activated CO2. It is attached to pyruvate carboxylase by a long, flexible chain.
The enzyme responsible for the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate into glucose.
An enzyme responsible for regulating the rates of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the human body.
Bifunctional enzyme (PFK2)
These amplify metabolic signals.