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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Terms Deck (25):
1

The sequence of reactions that metabolizes one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate with the concomitant net production of two molecules of ATP.

Glycolysis

2

The anaerobic processing of pyruvate to lactate.

Lactic acid fermentation

3

The anaerobic processing of pyruvate to ethanol.

Alcoholic fermentation

4

The reuse of pyruvate and lactate to synthesize glucose.

Gluconeogenesis

5

Starch and glycogen are digested primarily by this pancreatic enzyme and to a lesser extent by the salivary form of the enzyme.

alpha-amylase

6

The transfer of the phosphoryl group from ATP to the hydroxyl group on carbon 6 of glucose is catalyzed by this enzyme.

Hexokinase

7

Is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to an acceptor.

Kinase

8

An allosteric enzyme that sets the pace of glycolysis and also plays a central role in the metabolism of many molecules in all parts of the body.

Phosphofructokinase (PFK)

9

Polyphosphorylation is coupled to the oxidation of glyceraldegyde 3-phosphate by this intermediate.

Thioester intermediate

10

ATP formation by phosphoryl transfer from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.

Substrate-level phosphorylation

11

An enzyme that catalyzes the intramolecular shift of a chemical group, in this case a phosphoryl group.

Phosphoglycerate mutase

12

Has a high phosphoryl transfer potential.

Enol phosphate

13

Catalyzes the virtually irreversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenol-pyruvate to ADP.

Pyruvate kinase

14

An ATP-generating process in which organic compounds act both as the donor and as the acceptor of electrons.

Fermentation

15

Organisms that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.

Obligate anaerobe

16

A protein structural motif found in proteins that bind nucleotides, such as enzyme cofactors FAD, NAD, and NADP. The structure is composed of up to seven mostly parallel beta strands. The first two strands are connected by an α- helix.

Rossmann fold

17

It is the first irreversible reaction unique to the glycolytic pathway, which is the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

Committed step

18

Glycolysis is accelerated when glucose is abundant.

Feedforward stimulation

19

Rapidly growing tumor cells that metabolize glucose to lactate even in the presence of oxygen.

Aerobic glycolysis

20

The first step in gluconeogenesis is the carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate at the expense of a moleule of ATP, which is catalyzed by _______ _______.

Pyruvate carboxylase

21

A covalently attached prosthetic group, which serves as a carrier of activated CO2. It is attached to pyruvate carboxylase by a long, flexible chain.

Biotin

22

The enzyme responsible for the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate into glucose.

Glucose 6-phosphatase

23

An enzyme responsible for regulating the rates of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the human body.

Bifunctional enzyme (PFK2)

24

These amplify metabolic signals.

Substrate cycle

25

Contracting skeletal muscle supplies lactate to the liver, which uses it to synthesize and release glucose. Thus, the liver restores the level of glucose necessary for active muscle cells, which derive ATP from the glycolytic conversion of glucose into lactate.

Cori cycle