Chapter 16 - Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750 Deck (19)

European Renaissance

A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Norther (trans-Alphine) Renaissance, from roughly the early fifteenth to early seventeenth century.



The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.



The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.


Protestant Reformation

Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the "protesters" forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.


Catholic Reformation

Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.


Witch Hunt

The pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.


Scientific Revolution

The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for mother science.



A philosophical movement in eighteenth century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.



In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.


Joint-Stock Company

A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.


Stock Exchange

A place where shares in a company or business enterprise are bought and sold.



The class of landholding families in England below the aristocracy.


Little Ice Age

A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590's. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.



The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.


Holy Roman Empire

Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962- 1806



A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth- century Spain.


English Civil War

(1642-1649) A conflict over royal versus parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I's arrest of his parliamentary critics and ending with his execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism and, with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the English Bill of Rights of 1689, ensured that England would be a constitutional monarchy.



The huge palace built for French king Louis XVI south of Paris. The palace symbolized both French power and the triumph of royal authority over the French nobility.


Balance of Power

The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.