Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Chapter 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (25):
0

Social psychology

The effects of the social world on the behavior and mental processes of individuals.

1

Social cognition

The mental processes by which people perceive and react to others.

2

Self-concept

The set of beliefs we have about who we are and what we're like.

3

Self-esteem

The evaluations we make about how worthy we are as human beings.

4

Temporal comparisons

Comparisons between one's own past and present states.

5

Social comparison(theory)

In the absence of criteria, people compare themselves to others for the purpose of self-evaluation.

6

Reference groups

The categories of people to which individuals see themselves as belonging to and which they habitually compare themselves.

7

Relative deprivation

A person's relative standing on any dimension is poor to that person's social reference group.

8

Social identity

Our belief about the groups to which we belong.

9

Self-schemas

The mental representation people form of themselves. Based in social comparison and social identity.

10

Social perception

The processes through which people interpret info about others. Influences the conclusions one makes about another person's personality style and why the person behaves in certain ways.

11

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Process by which an impression of a person, object, or event elicits behavior that confirms the impression.

12

Attribution

The process of explaining the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Internal or external causes can account for behavior.

13

Fundamental attribution error

The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal.

14

Actor-observer bias

The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external factors, and others' behavior to internal factors, especially when the behavior is inappropriate or involves failure.

15

Self-serving bias

The tendency to take credit for success but to blame external causes for failure.

16

Attitude

The tendency to think, feel, or act positively or negatively toward objects in our environment. Has behavioral, cognitive, and affective components.

17

Elaboration likelihood model

A message may change a person's attitude through a peripheral or central route. Central requires both the motivation and ability to so.

18

Cognitive dissonance theory

People prefer that their cognitions about themselves and the rest of the world be consistent with each other. When not, people feel uneasy and are motivated to make them more consistent.

19

Self-perception theory

We review our own behavior to determine what our attitudes are.

20

Stereotypes

Impressions or schemas of entire groups of people.

21

Prejudice

Holding a preconceived positive or negative attitude about an individual based on their membership in a group of people.

22

Discrimination

Differential treatment of various groups that can be a behavioral component of prejudice.

23

Contact hypothesis

A person's prejudice and stereotypes about a group should be reduced with friendly exposure to members of equal standing in that group.

24

Matching hypothesis

A person is more likely to from committed relationships with others who are similar in physical attractiveness than with those who are notably more or less attractive.