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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (56):
1

Artificially aquired immunity

 

1 of 2 forms of aquired immunity

Developed from vaccinations

Active-immunity developed from vaccination such as tetnus shot taken to prevent reaction to rusty punture wound.

Passive-temporary immunity, example= antitoxin given due to rattlesnake bite.  does not last longterm

 

2

B Lymphocytes

Under Acquired -Humoral Immunity-

B cells or lymphocytes respond to antigens and produce antibodies

Targets outside the cell against small microbes.

 

 

 

 

 

3

carrier

part of immunogen section:

with the attachment of the hapten, the carrier molecule/hapten combination stimulate an immune response. For example,

hapten=a person

carrier=bus

need of transportation to immune response

4

CD4

Molecules

1 of 2 types of MHC receptors on the surface of T helper cells.

recognizes MHC class II and exogenous antigen

5

CD8

contained in T cytotoxic cells- these molecules are on the surface and recognize antigen presented by MHC class 1 molecules

6

Cell mediated immunity

1 of 2 branches of aquired immunity- the other is humoral

 

T cell mediated instead of B cells.

involves: cytotoxic T cells

Helper T cells

and cytotoxic activity goes against cellular targets.

7

Cytotoxic T cells

part of cell mediated immunity.

The cyto. T cells are the "killers" of the cells expressing the antigen.

8

Endogenous antigen

Endo=within

generated within the cell.

virus in cell gets degraded into fragments. The processed antigen binds with MHC class 1 and goes to Tcell

A cancer cell produces endo. antigens

9

Exogeneous antigen

Exo= outer

in contrast to endogeneous, the exogeneous antigen is outside the cell. Part of T helper cells.

 

10

Extracellular

Outside the cell-

this term is used in reference to cell mediated immunity and the example of large extracellular microbes being a target for cytotoxic activity.

11

Fc Region


the constant regions of the heavy chains create a tail - Fc region
     . this site activates complement and       attaches to other immune cells
 

 

12

Hapten

an antigen that is too small to stimulate an      immune response is a hapten
. a hapten is bound to a carrier to stimulate an immune response
 

13

Heavy Chains


The heavy chain portion of an antibody contains 2 regions; the Fab (Antigen-binding portion) and Fc (Constant region; confers biological activity such as phagocytosis of microorganisms, lysis, and clumping of organisms together).

 

14

Helper T cell

contain CD4 molecules on their surface that recognize antigen presented by MHC class II molecules
   
b. release immunoregulatory substances when they    recognize a foreign molecule
 

15

Humoral immunity

B cells(lymphocytes)
   1. Differentiate in the bone marrow

2. Contain antigen receptors that have the same structure as immunoglobulins
a. the antigen receptors on each individual B cell only recognize a single antigen
b. the body contains B cells that recognize millions of different antigens
 

16

Idiotypic Site

17

Acquired

An individual is not born with the ability to mount an effective immune responce, but aquires it through life as a result from exposure to pathogens (by various methods). In general "if it doesn't kill you, you become  immune to it"

18

Active immunity

immunity developed as a result of exposure to a microbe

19

ADCC

Antibody dependent cytoxic cell

tha target cell is first coated with antibodies and a variety of cells of the immune system binds to the Fc region of these antibodies (and thus to the target cell). The target cell is then lysed by substanses secreated by attaching cells.

20

Agglutination

antibodies cause antigens to clump together 

21

Anamnestic

anamnestic or secondary responce occurs when the immune system responds faster and more efficiently to a repeated explosure to a microbe (due to immune memory)

22

Antibodies

secreated by plasma cells, antibodies will attach to the foreign molecule. Antibodies consist of two light chains and two heavy chains; the chains are held together by disulfide bounds, and each chain has constant and variable region.

23

Antigen

a molecule or substance bound by an antibody. Sometimes antigen is too small to stimulate the immune responce and it needs a hapten.

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Antigen presentation

the antigen is present to T helper cells which release chemical mediators that stimulate primed B cells to defferentiate and multiply 

25

Antigen receptor

it's a receptor on each individual B or T cell which only recognize a single antigen. The antigen receptor complex on T cells contain an antigen recognition and self MHC recognition component

26

Antigenic determinant 

(epitope) - the site on the antigen that a particular antibody binds to (a single antigen may contain hundreds of antigenic  determinants)

27

Natural Killer Cells

a lymphoid cell that destroys tumor cells and virus infected cells

Nonspecific lymphocytes similar to T cytotoxic cells
a. attack the same kind of target, but do not recognize specific antigens
 
b. particularly effective against virus infected cells and cancer cells


28

T Suppressor Cells

A.k.a (T regulatory cells)-

 Lymphocytes that appear to suppress other T cells.

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T DTH cells

30

TCR (T-cell Receptors)

Molecules on T cells that recognize antigens

31

Specificity

Percentage of false positive results given by a diagnostic test.

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Secondary Response or "anemestic" response

Activation of memory cells and immediate production of high affinity IgG

33

Primary Response

IgM produced first and later IgG 

The first antibody produced has a relatively low affinity for the antigen.

34

Plasma Cell

Antibody secreting cells ( a cell that an active B cell differentiates into)

35

perforins

protein that makes a pore in the target cell membrane, released by Tc Cells

36

Passive immunity

Naturally acquired: temporary immunity due to recieving preformed maternal antibodies across membrane.

Artificially acquired: temporary immunity due to recieving preformed antibodies from humans or other animals.

37

Naturally acquired immunity

developed from “normal” conditions
1. Active - immunity developed as a result of exposure to a microbe

2. Passive - temporary immunity due to receiving preformed maternal antibodies across

 

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39

Iga

protects mucosal surfaces, found in secretions, blood, and lymph

40

IgE

binds to mast cells and basophils to initiate allergic reactions; Monomer that is larger than IgG

41

IgG

anti-toxin antibody found in blood and lymph

- small monomers that are capable of crossing the placenta

- the primary antibody produced during the secondary immune response

42

IgM

 

agglutinating antibody found in blood, lymph, and on B cells; Pentomer - first antibody produced during an immune response; Very good at sticking things together because it has 10 binding sides

43

Memory

the immune systen "remember" a microbe that it had previously been exposed to and responds faster and more efficiently to a repeated exposure (this is called anamnestic or secondary response)

44

Immunogen

a moleule or substrate that stimulates an immune responce

- must be identified as foreign by the immune response

- complex molecules are more immunogenic 

-must be fairly large 

45

MHC

the antigens carried by all cells of an individual that immune cells recognize as self (its essential that the immune system differentiates self from non-self).

MHC antigens from other individuals trigger tissue regection.

46

MHC class I

found on all cells of an individual

47

MHC class II

found only on antogen presenting cells

48

Memory cell

derivative from B cell. When B cell is primed (activated), it will make a lot of copies of itself (clonal expansion) - memory and plasma cells. Memory cells will respond more quickly to a second exposure to the same antigen.

49

Light chain

Antibody consist of two light chains and two heavy chains, which are held together by sulfide bonds. Each chain has constant and variable region.

50

Inflammation

another component of a second line of defense triggered by damage to the body tissue (such as heat, radiant energy, electricity, or sharp object). Inflammation is usually characterized by four signs and symptoms: redness, pain, heat, and swelling.

51

AM: ) What type of immunity results from vaccination?
A) Innate immunity     D) Naturally acquired active immunity
B) Naturally acquired passive immunity   E) Artificially acquired active immunity
C) Artificially acquired passive immunity

 

 E  An injection is artificial and a vaccine is antigen that stimulates an active immune response.

 

52

AM:What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?
A) Innate immunity     D) Naturally acquired active immunity
B) Naturally acquired passive immunity   E) Artificially acquired active immunity
C) Artificially acquired passive immunity
 

 C  An injection is artificial and antibodies do not stimulate an immune response, but provide immediate passive protection.

 

53

AM:A human's resistance to canine distemper is an example of
A) Innate immunity.   

  B) Naturally acquired passive immunity.  E) Artificially acquired active immunity.
C) Artificially acquired passive immunity.
D) Naturally acquired active immunity.

 

 A.  The canine distemper virus cannot bind to human cells which makes humans innately resistant.

 

54

Examples of cell mediated immunity include all of the folowing except

a. phagocytic cells

b. perforins

c. T cytotoxic cells

d. virus infeted cell

SLR

A. Phagocytic cell is innate immunity

55

IgM consist of all of the follwing characteristics except

a. Agglutination

b.Produced in secondary response

c.first antibody produced

d. pentomer

SLR

B. IgG is produced during a secondary response

56

Which of the following is humoral immunity?

a. anibodies

b. complement

c.perforins

d. fever

SLR

A. Anitbody- Humoral

B. Complement- Innate

C. Perforins- Cell mediated

D. Fever is also innate