Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

Geol 101 Lecture > Chapter 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (32):
1

zone of soil moisture

zone where water is held by molecular attraction on soil particles in the near surface zone
-used by plants
-evaporates directly back to atmosphere

2

zone of saturation

zone where all of the pore spaces are completely filled with water

3

groundwater

water in the zone of saturation

4

water table

upper limit of the zone of saturation

5

unsaturated zone

area above the zone of saturation
-pore spaces with air and water; include the zone of soil moisture; includes capillary fringe (where groundwater is held in pore spaces by surface tension)

6

gaining streams

gain water from the inflow of groundwater through the streambed

7

losing streams

lose water to the groundwater system by outflow through the streambed

8

porosity

percentage of pore spaces in rock or sediment
poorly sorted sediments have low porostiy

9

Permeability

is the ability of a material to transmit a fluid

10

Aquitard

impermeable layer that hinders or prevents water movement

11

aquifer

permeable rock strata or sediment that transmits groundwater freely

12

recharge

groundwater is replenished

13

discharge

groundwater flows back to the surface

14

Darcy's law

measure of the volume of water that flows through an aquifer using the hydraulic gradient, conductivity, and cross-sectional area

15

Hydraulic gradient

the water table slope

16

hydraulic conductivity

takes into account the permeability of the aquifer and viscosity of the liquid to determine how fast water will flow through a medium

17

well

hole bored into the zone of saturation

18

drawdown

as water is withdrawn from the well, the surrounding water table is lowered

19

cone of depression

cone-shaped depression in the water table forms around a well

20

artesain

well or spring is a system where groundwater under pressure rises above the level of the aquifer

21

confined aquifer

an aquifer confined by aquitards

22

nonflowing artesian well

pressure surface is below ground level

23

Flowing artesian well

pressure surface is above the ground

24

springs

a natural outflow of water from the intersection of the water table and the ground surface

25

hot spring

6 to 9 degree celcious warmer than the mean annual air temperature of the locality

26

geysers

are intermittent hot springs in which columns of water erupt with force

27

caverns

created by acidic groundwater dissolving soluble rock

28

speleothem

general name for all dripstone features

29

stalactites

hanging from ceiling

30

stalagmites

form on the floor

31

Karst topography

landscape that has been shaped mainly by the dissolving power of groundwater

32

sinkholes

formed by groundwater slowly dissolving that bedrock