Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (87)
The ____ is a filtering mechanism in the nervous system.
There is ____ normal biota in the nervous system and its defenses.
Any microorganisms in the PNS or CNS are _____ from the healthy state.
________ means they are able to tolerate the introduction of antigens without eliciting an inflammatory immune response.
The nervous system is an ____ site.
_____ is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Most meningitis in the U.S. is ____.
_____ and _____ infections can also lead to meningitis.
bacterial and fungal
More serous forms of meningitis is caused by ______.
To diagino meningitis a _____ is performed to obtain CSF.
lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
Bacterial organisms may be seen in CSF ____, but it is not 100%.
The typical symptoms of meningitis include headache, painful or stiff neck, ____ and usually and increased _____ in the CSF.
increased number of white blood cells
______ is an inflammation of the brain.
_____ infections are the most common cause of encephalitis, but not the only cause.
Encephalitis symptoms include mild flu-like symptoms to severe neurological symptoms: ______, seizures, or problems with ____.
Severe cases of _____, are relatively rare, but can be life-threatening.
Neisseria meingitidis is a gram _______ species.
Neisseria meningitidis is arranged in ______.
Neisseria meningitidis is known as ______.
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in _____.
Neisseria meningitidis is the only ______ cause of meningitis known to cause epidemics.
General symptoms of Neisseria meningitidis include flu-like symptom such as fatigue, fever and _____.
The rapid progression of Neisseria meningitidis include _____, coma and death in 10% of cases.
____ of meningitis is a medical emergency.
Neisseria meningitidis is spread via ______ and ______ secretions during activities like coughing, kissing, and sharing utensils.
Neisseria meningitidis is not as contagious as common ______.
cold or flu
Treatment for Neisseria meningitidis requires _____ treatment essential due to fast dissemination of bacteria in the body.
_____ media contains several antibiotics and is selective for Neisseria.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram ____ species.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is arranged in ____.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is called _____.
The most frequent cause of community-acquired meningitis is _________.
Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause many other diseases as well including otitis media, _____ and many others.
Streptococcus pneumoniae inhabits the nasopharynx of ____ of healthy adults, and up to ______ of healthy children.
There is a _____ for Streptococcus pneumoniae that consists of capsules from several sterotypes.
The treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae is ______.
antibiotic therapy which is effective
Haemophilus influenzae is a gram ____ species.
Haemophilus influenzae is found in the nasopharynx of ___% of health children/adults.
Haemophilus influenzae is spread by direct contact or through ______.
Haemophius influenzae causes ______, not the flu, despite its name.
Haemophilus influenzae symptoms include fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and ______.
Haemophilus influenzae is treated with a ____ against the most common type available.
Listeria monocytogenes is gram _____.
Listeria monocytogenes is resistant to cold, heat, salt, _____ and bile.
In normal adults Listeria monocytogenes is a _____.
In immunocompromised patients Listeria monocytogenes results in _____.
Listeria monocytogenes in a fetus results in a _______.
Listeria monocytogenes is transmitted by eating food contaminated with Listeria such as _____ and vegetables, soft cheeses, ______, raw milk, and cheeses.
Naegleria fowleri is an ____ known as "brain-eating amoeba"
Naegleria fowleri forms a round, ______ (transmission) ???
In Naegleria fowleri occurs when amoebas are forced into ______.
human nasal passages in water.
Naegleria folweri occurs when an amoeba burrows in to the nasal mucosa, ____, and migrates into the brain and surrounding structure.
Naegleria fowleri is usually _____, so treatments are often futile.
Naegleria in the brain is an _______ of the meninges and encephalitis.
From 2005 to 2014, ____ infections of Naegleria in the brain were reported in the US.
____ people were contaminated with Naegleria in the brain via recreational water.
___ people received Naegleria in the brain from nasal irrigation using contaminated tap water.
1 person received Naegleria in the brain from a contaminated _____ on a slip n slide.
3 people in the U.S. out of 133 have ____ a Naegleria in the brain infection from 1962 to 2014.
_____ is a slow, progressive zoonotic disease.
Rabies can result in _____.
The average incubation time of rabies is _____.
1 to 2 months or more
Prodromal phase of rabies begins wit fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, ______, and _____.
other nonspecific symptoms
Treatment of rabies involves both _____ and _____ immunotherapy.
_____ rabies causes agitation, disorientation, seizures, and twitching.
Furious rabies results in neck and _____ muscle spasms which leads to hydrophobia.
_____ rabies is when a patient is not hyperactive but is paralyzed, disoriented.
Both furious and dumb rabies progress to _____ and ____.
coma and death
Poliomyelitis also known as _____.
the polio virus
The polio virus is what type of virus?
Poliomyeitis is spread via _____ route.
Many people don't have symptoms of poliomyelitis, but ___ the virus in their feces.
Most people infected with poilomyelitis are under _____ of age.
There are two versions of poliomyelitis: _______ and _______.
_______ is an invasion but no nervous tissue destruction.
Non-paralytic disease of Poliomyelitis
________ is an invasion and damage of neurons.
Paralytic disease of Poliomyelitis
Poliomyelitis progression begins with _____, growth is slowed, and deformities result.
Common sites of deformities when infected with Poliomyelitis are the spine, shoulder, hips, _____ and ____.
Poliomyelitis causes ____ function impairment, but sensation is not compromised; crippled limbs are often very painful.
Polio has decreased by ___% since 1988.
Some countries still have a high rate of infection of _____.
There are two effective vaccines for poliomyelitis: ____ and _____.
salk and sabin
_____ is an inactivated vaccine for Poliomyeitis.
Salk vaccine is an ______ which needs health training and sterile supplies to administer.
____ is an attenuated vaccine in the form of oral drops.
Sabin vaccine for Poliomyelitis is a weakened form that runs the risk of _______.