Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (87)
1

The ____ is a filtering mechanism in the nervous system.

blood-brain barrier

2

There is ____ normal biota in the nervous system and its defenses.

no

3

Any microorganisms in the PNS or CNS are _____ from the healthy state.

deviations

4

________ means they are able to tolerate the introduction of antigens without eliciting an inflammatory immune response.

immunologic privilege

5

The nervous system is an ____ site.

immunologically privileged

6

_____ is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

meningitis

7

Most meningitis in the U.S. is ____.

viral

8

_____ and _____ infections can also lead to meningitis.

bacterial and fungal

9

More serous forms of meningitis is caused by ______.

bacteria

10

To diagino meningitis a _____ is performed to obtain CSF.

lumbar puncture (spinal tap)

11

Bacterial organisms may be seen in CSF ____, but it is not 100%.

gram stain

12

The typical symptoms of meningitis include headache, painful or stiff neck, ____ and usually and increased _____ in the CSF.

fever
increased number of white blood cells

13

______ is an inflammation of the brain.

encephalitis

14

_____ infections are the most common cause of encephalitis, but not the only cause.

viral

15

Encephalitis symptoms include mild flu-like symptoms to severe neurological symptoms: ______, seizures, or problems with ____.

confusion
movement

16

Severe cases of _____, are relatively rare, but can be life-threatening.

encephalitis

17

Neisseria meingitidis is a gram _______ species.

gram negative

18

Neisseria meningitidis is arranged in ______.

diplococci

19

Neisseria meningitidis is known as ______.

meningococcus.

20

Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in _____.

industrialized countries

21

Neisseria meningitidis is the only ______ cause of meningitis known to cause epidemics.

bacterial

22

General symptoms of Neisseria meningitidis include flu-like symptom such as fatigue, fever and _____.

headache

23

The rapid progression of Neisseria meningitidis include _____, coma and death in 10% of cases.

neck stiffness

24

____ of meningitis is a medical emergency.

suspicion

25

Neisseria meningitidis is spread via ______ and ______ secretions during activities like coughing, kissing, and sharing utensils.

saliva
respiratory

26

Neisseria meningitidis is not as contagious as common ______.

cold or flu

27

Treatment for Neisseria meningitidis requires _____ treatment essential due to fast dissemination of bacteria in the body.

rapid antibiotic

28

_____ media contains several antibiotics and is selective for Neisseria.

Thayer-Martin

29

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram ____ species.

positive

30

Streptococcus pneumoniae is arranged in ____.

diplococci

31

Streptococcus pneumoniae is called _____.

pneumococcus

32

The most frequent cause of community-acquired meningitis is _________.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

33

Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause many other diseases as well including otitis media, _____ and many others.

speticemia

34

Streptococcus pneumoniae inhabits the nasopharynx of ____ of healthy adults, and up to ______ of healthy children.

5-10%
20-40%

35

There is a _____ for Streptococcus pneumoniae that consists of capsules from several sterotypes.

vaccine

36

The treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae is ______.

antibiotic therapy which is effective

37

Haemophilus influenzae is a gram ____ species.

negative

38

Haemophilus influenzae is found in the nasopharynx of ___% of health children/adults.

75%

39

Haemophilus influenzae is spread by direct contact or through ______.

respiratory droplets

40

Haemophius influenzae causes ______, not the flu, despite its name.

sever meningitis

41

Haemophilus influenzae symptoms include fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and ______.

neurological impairment.

42

Haemophilus influenzae is treated with a ____ against the most common type available.

vaccine

43

Listeria monocytogenes is gram _____.

positive

44

Listeria monocytogenes is resistant to cold, heat, salt, _____ and bile.

pH extremes

45

In normal adults Listeria monocytogenes is a _____.

mild infection

46

In immunocompromised patients Listeria monocytogenes results in _____.

septicemia

47

Listeria monocytogenes in a fetus results in a _______.

miscarriage/stillbirth

48

Listeria monocytogenes is transmitted by eating food contaminated with Listeria such as _____ and vegetables, soft cheeses, ______, raw milk, and cheeses.

uncooked meats
processed meats

49

Naegleria fowleri is an ____ known as "brain-eating amoeba"

amoeba

50

Naegleria fowleri forms a round, ______ (transmission) ???

thick-walled cyst

51

In Naegleria fowleri occurs when amoebas are forced into ______.

human nasal passages in water.

52

Naegleria folweri occurs when an amoeba burrows in to the nasal mucosa, ____, and migrates into the brain and surrounding structure.

multiples

53

Naegleria fowleri is usually _____, so treatments are often futile.

fatal

54

Naegleria in the brain is an _______ of the meninges and encephalitis.

inflammation/infection

55

From 2005 to 2014, ____ infections of Naegleria in the brain were reported in the US.

35

56

____ people were contaminated with Naegleria in the brain via recreational water.

31

57

___ people received Naegleria in the brain from nasal irrigation using contaminated tap water.

3

58

1 person received Naegleria in the brain from a contaminated _____ on a slip n slide.

tap water

59

3 people in the U.S. out of 133 have ____ a Naegleria in the brain infection from 1962 to 2014.

survived

60

_____ is a slow, progressive zoonotic disease.

rabies

61

Rabies can result in _____.

fatal encephalitis

62

The average incubation time of rabies is _____.

1 to 2 months or more

63

Prodromal phase of rabies begins wit fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, ______, and _____.

fatigue
other nonspecific symptoms

64

Treatment of rabies involves both _____ and _____ immunotherapy.

passive
active

65

_____ rabies causes agitation, disorientation, seizures, and twitching.

furious

66

Furious rabies results in neck and _____ muscle spasms which leads to hydrophobia.

pharyngeal

67

_____ rabies is when a patient is not hyperactive but is paralyzed, disoriented.

dumb

68

Both furious and dumb rabies progress to _____ and ____.

coma and death

69

Poliomyelitis also known as _____.

the polio virus

70

The polio virus is what type of virus?

an enterovirus

71

Poliomyeitis is spread via _____ route.

fecal-oral

72

Many people don't have symptoms of poliomyelitis, but ___ the virus in their feces.

shed

73

Most people infected with poilomyelitis are under _____ of age.

5 years

74

There are two versions of poliomyelitis: _______ and _______.

non-paralytic disease
paralytic disease

75

_______ is an invasion but no nervous tissue destruction.

Non-paralytic disease of Poliomyelitis

76

________ is an invasion and damage of neurons.

Paralytic disease of Poliomyelitis

77

Poliomyelitis progression begins with _____, growth is slowed, and deformities result.

muscle atrophy

78

Common sites of deformities when infected with Poliomyelitis are the spine, shoulder, hips, _____ and ____.

knees
feet

79

Poliomyelitis causes ____ function impairment, but sensation is not compromised; crippled limbs are often very painful.

motor

80

Polio has decreased by ___% since 1988.

99%

81

Some countries still have a high rate of infection of _____.

Poliomyelitis

82

There are two effective vaccines for poliomyelitis: ____ and _____.

salk and sabin

83

_____ is an inactivated vaccine for Poliomyeitis.

salk

84

Salk vaccine is an ______ which needs health training and sterile supplies to administer.

injection

85

____ is an attenuated vaccine in the form of oral drops.

Sabin

86

Sabin vaccine for Poliomyelitis is a weakened form that runs the risk of _______.

vaccine-associated paralysis

87

With the sabin vaccine there is no training needed or ______ for administration.

sterile supplies