Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (45):
Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys?
They are located BEHIND THE PERITONEUM.
A renal corpuscle includes the
***glomerulus and glomerular capsule.***
Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?
proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus becomes constricted,
the glomerular filtration rate decreases.
The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the
PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED tubule.
Whenever the plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold,
the volume of urine decreases.
Whenever sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, chloride ions are
SECRETED by PASSIVE transport.
The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the
PROXIMAL convoluted tubule.
The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall(s) of the
DISTAL CONVOLUTED tubule and COLLECTING duct.
The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted
ACTIVELY INTO THE PROXIMAL convoluted tubule.
The ureter extends downward
BEHIND the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from BELOW
The micturition reflex center is located in the
sacral segments of the spinal cord.
Which of the following is not part of the male urethra?
Which of the following would increase the rate of glomerular filtration?
INCREASED blood pressure
Which of the following is not considered a function of the kidneys?
formation of plasma proteins
Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron?
calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Conscious control of micturition involves inhibiting the micturition reflex by using nerve centers in the
brain stem and cerebral cortex.
Which of the following correctly describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop?
Water moves OUT OF THE DESCENDING limb; sodium moves OUT OF THE ASCENDING limb.
Gout is a condition in which the plasma has an abnormally high concentration of
As a result of excessively low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure
DROPS and filtration DECREASES.
What is the purpose of the countercurrent mechanism in the nephron?
It creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water.
As a consequence of widespread edema, blood volume
DECREASES and blood pressure DROPS
Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be
CONSERVED and water to be CONSERVED.
Infants are more likely to become dehydrated than adults because
infant kidneys are less able to conserve water.
During a kidney transplant procedure, the renal artery and vein of the donor kidney are connected to the recipient's
ILIAC artery and vein.
Plasma clearance is a test to determine the rate at which the kidneys can
remove a particular substance from the blood.
Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of
The renal medulla is composed of _____ , whereas the renal cortex is composed of _____ .
GRANULAR TISSUE COMPOSED OF NEPHRON TUBULES
A renal corpuscle is a _____ , whereas a renal tubule is a _____ .
tangled cluster of blood capillaries; highly coiled tubule that leads away from the glomerular capsule
An increase in glomerular osmotic pressure will result in _____ the rate of glomerular filtration.
an increase in
Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by
vasodilation of the afferent arteriole
vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by _____ and by _____ .
vasodilation of the afferent arteriole;
RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN II causing vasoconstriction of the renal artery
The epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule are adapted for reabsorption by
having microscopic projections called microvilli.
The micturition reflex can be voluntarily controlled by the
CEREBRAL CORTEX STIMULATING OR INHIBITING THE EXTERNAL URETHRAL sphincter valve.
A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of a glomerular capsule will result in _____ the rate of glomerular filtration.
a decrease in
The composition of glomerular filtrate compares to that of plasma by containing
the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules.
The glomerular capsule is composed of
two layers of squamous epithelial cells.
Glomerular filtrate has a composition similar to
If the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma is decreased,
the glomerular filtration rate is increased.
The glomerular filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule is isotonic to the
plasma of the peritubular capillary.
Urine is forced along the length of the ureter by
About 50% of urea is absorbed from filtrate by diffusion, whereas uric acid is absorbed by
ADH functions to increase absorption of water from urine into blood by
increasing the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
Inulin clearance measures
the rate of glomerular filtration.