Flashcards in Chapter 17 & 18 Deck (49):
A public policy such as social security that provides benefits to all groups.
Policy that provides to one group of society while taking away benefits from another through policy tools such as tax increases to pay for job training.
Policy that takes away exactly as much in benefits as another group gains.
Zero sum game
Policy that reduces benefits for all groups such as a tax increase in society.
Counter distributive policy
A specific course of action that government takes to address a problem
The interaction of the people and their government.
A decision not to mover ahead with the policy process. A decision not to decide.
The list of issues that the federal government pays attention to.
A non gov organization that seeks to influence public policy through research and education.
The movement if of public opinion toward public policy from initial enthusiasm for action to realization of costs and a decline in interest.
Issue attention cycle
Small adjustments to existing public policy
Radical changes to public policy that occur only after the mobilization of large segments of society to demand action.
A policy making instrument composed of tightly related alliances of congressional committee, interest groups, and fed agency's.
Policy making instrument composed of loosely related interest groups, congressional committee, presidential aids, and other parties.
Policy that encourages or discourages certain behavior by imposing a legally binding rule.
A precise statement of how a law is implemented.
Gov policy that attempts to manage economy by controlling taxing and spending.
Gov policy that attempts to manage economy by controlling money supply and thus interest rates.
A rise in the general price level (and decrease in dollar value) owing to an increase in the volume of money and credit in relation to available goods.
A combination of an economic slowdown and a rise in prices.
The value of all goods and services produced by an economy during a certain period of time.
Gross domestic product
A consumer tax on a certain type of merchandise.
Condition that exist when the gov raises less revenue than it spends
A tax levied on imports
Tax graduated so that people with higher income pay a larger fraction that those with lower income.
Tax where people with lower income pay a higher fraction that those with higher incomes
Amount of money the federal gov has borrowed to finance defector spending over the years.
Prez staff agency that serves as a clearing house for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies.
Office of management and budget
Agency of c grass that analyzes presidential budget recommendations and estimates the cost of proposed legislature.
Congressional budget office
A loss of tax revenue die to federal law that provide special tax incentives or benefits to individuals or businesses.
A tax on increased value of a product at each stage of production and distribution rather than just at the point of sale.
Value added tax
The system created by congress in 1913 to establish banking practices and regulate currency in circulation and the amount of credit available.
Federal reserve system
The amount of interest banks charge for loans to each other.
Federal funds rate
Theory that opposed gov interference in economy.
Laissez faire economics
Gov spending should increase during business slumps and be curved during business booms
A policy of erecting trade barriers to protect domestic industry.
An imbalance in international trade in which the value of imports is greater than exports.
International organization derived from the general agreement. On tariffs and trade that promises free trade around the world.
World trade organization
An international trade organization with more that 130 members that seeks to encourage free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions.
General agreements on tariffs and trade
Agreement signed by US, Canada, and Mexico in 1992 to format feat free trade zone in the world.
North American free trade agreement.
Federalism that try to prevent monopolies
Monopoly that controls goods and services often in combination that reduce competition.
Court order that forbids specific individuals or groups from performing g certain acts that the court considers harmful to the rights and property of an employer or community.
A method where representatives of the I ion and employer determine wages, hours, and other conditions through direct negotiation.
Company where union membership is condition of employment.
Company where new employees must join a union within a stated time period.
A statement required by federal
Law by an agency for any project using federal funds to asses the potential effect of the new construction on the environment.
Environmental impact statement
Efforts by corporations to improve their reputations by paying attention to their contributions to the social good.
Corporate social responsibility