Flashcards in Chapter 17-Early Alternatives To Psychoanalysis Deck (28)
For Jung, the creative life force that provides the energy for personal growth
According to Jung, that aspect of the psyche responsible for problem-solving, remembering, and perceiving
Jungs term for the place that stores material from one's lifetime of which one is currently not conscious
Jungs term for the part of the unconscious mind that reflects universal human experience through the ages. For Jung, it is the most powerful component of the personality
According to Jung, an inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain categories of experience
Describe Jungs views on the attitudes or personality types
He described to major orientations, or attitudes, that people take in relating to the world. One was labeled introversion and the other extroversion.
The introverted person tends to be quiet, imaginative, and more interested in ideas than in interacting with people. The extroverted person is outgoing and sociable.
Although every individual possesses both attitudes, they usually assume one of the two attitudes more than the other. And he believed that the mature, healthy adult personality reflects both attitudes about equally
According to Jung, what occurs when unrelated events converge in a persons life in a meaningful way
Describe Jungs views on causality, teleology, and synchronicity
Like Freud, he was a determinist and both believed that important causes of a persons personality are found in his or her past experiences. However, he believed that to truly understand a person, one must understand the person's prior experiences-including those registered in the collective unconscious- and the person's goals for the future.
Therefore, his theory embraced teleology or purpose unlike Freud's theory. People are both pushed by the past and pulled by the future.
Another important determinant of personality is synchronicity, or meaningful coincidence that occurs when two or more events, each with their own independent causality, come together in a meaningful way
For Jung, dreams provided a mechanism by which inhibited parts of the psyche might be given expression. Therefore, dream analysis indicated which aspects of the psyche are underdeveloped
Describe Jung's views on the importance of middle-age
The goal of life is to reach self actualization, which involves the harmonious blending of all aspects of the personality. How the various aspects of personality manifest themselves within the context of a particular persons life is called individuation.
The process of attempting to understand the conflicting forces occupies most of childhood, adolescence, and early childhood. It is usually not until late 30s or early 40s that a major transformation occurs. Once a person has recognized the many conflicting forces in his or her personality, The person is in a position to synthesize and harmonize them. Self actualization occurs when all discordant elements of personality are given equal expression
Describe the commonly cited criticisms and contributions of Jungs theory
Criticisms: embraced occultism, spiritualism, mysticism, and religion. Many saw him as unscientific or even anti-scientific because he used to such things as the symbols found in art, religion, and human fantasy to develop and verify his theory. The archetype has been criticized for being metaphysical and unverifiable. Theory is unclear, incomprehensible, inconsistent, and in places is contradictory. Criticized for employing the Lamarckian notion of the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Contributions: remains popular in psychology. His notions of introversion and extroversion have stimulated much research and are a part of several popular personality tests. He introduced the Aristotlelian notion of self actualization into modern psychology
And early follower of Freud who left the Freudian camp and created his own theory of personality, which emphasized the conscious mind and the individual creation of a worldview, guiding fictions, and a lifestyle in order to overcome feelings of inferiority and to seek perfection
According to Adler, the making up for a weakness by developing strengths in other areas
According to Adler, the conversion of a weakness into a strength
According to Adler, those feelings that all humans try to escape by becoming powerful or superior
Feelings of inferiority
According to Adler, the condition one experiences when overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority instead of being motivated toward success by those feelings
According to Adler, the way of life that a person chooses to implement the life goals derived from his or her worldview
The concern for other humans and for society that Adler believed characterizes a healthy lifestyle
According to Adler, any lifestyle lacking sufficient social interest
According to Adler, the component of the personality that provides humans with the freedom to choose their own destinies
And ego defense mechanism, postulated by Anna Freud, whereby a person avoids personal anxiety by vicariously living the life of another person
Freudian contention that a number of major personality characteristics are determined by one's gender
Anatomy is destiny
Psychology that emphasizes the autonomous functions of the ego and minimizes the conflicts among the ego, ID, and superego
According to Jung, the attitude toward life that is characterized by gregariousness and a willingness to take risks
According to Jung, The attitude toward life that is characterized by social isolation and an introspective nature
And ego defense mechanism, postulated by Anna Freud, whereby the fear caused by a person is reduced by adopting the feared person's values
Identification with the aggressor
The doctrine that states that at least some human behavior is purposive, that is, directed to the attainment of future goals