Chapter 17-Industrial America:Corporations And Conflicts 1877-1911 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17-Industrial America:Corporations And Conflicts 1877-1911 Deck (54):
0

What were traveling salesmen called in the late nineteenth century?


Drummers
→ "Drummers" became a familiar sight on city streets and even in remote country stores as early as the 1870s. Riding the rail networks from town to town, these "drummers" introduced merchants to new products, offered incentives, and suggested sales displays.

1

The gold rush in which state brought thousands of Chinese to the United States in the 1840s?


California
→ The California gold rush brought thousands of Chinese to the United States in the 1850s.

2

Participants in which movement were arrested in the aftermath of the Haymarket Square bombing in 1886?


Anarchists
→ Anarchists organized a protest at Haymarket that ended in violence and death when police moved to break it up and someone threw a bomb. Anarchists were blamed (the evidence against the individuals who were charged was extremely weak), but the event set off an antiunion and antiradical hysteria that allowed the relatively conservative American Federation of Labor to take leadership of the American labor movement and weakened alternatives such as the Knights of Labor.

3

What was the nature of the new legal form called the trust created in 1882 by John D. Rockefeller's lawyers?

To use a board to manage an assemblage of corporations as a single entity
→ Rockefeller's lawyers created the trust in order to make it possible for a board of trustees to manage a group of corporations as a single entity.

4

What was the nature of the new legal form called the trust created in 1882 by John D. Rockefeller's lawyers?

To use a board to manage an assemblage of corporations as a single entity
→ Rockefeller's lawyers created the trust in order to make it possible for a board of trustees to manage a group of corporations as a single entity.

5

After the Civil War, the United States signed the Burlingame Treaty with which country to control emigration from that country?


China
→ After the Civil War, the Burlingame Treaty between the United States and China opened the way for increasing numbers of Chinese to emigrate to the United States.

6

What issue sparked workers to stage the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?

The issuance of steep wage cuts
→ The depression that had begun in 1873 deeply cut into the revenues of railroad companies, which responded by trying to restrict labor costs by imposing significant wage cuts.

7

What major event of the 1870s resulted in strong anti-Chinese sentiment on the Pacific coast?


Economic recession
→ During the depression of the 1870s, hostility was especially extreme in the Pacific coast states, where the majority of Asian immigrants lived. An anti-Chinese movement formed, particularly in California, which produced major violence against the Chinese and a political policy of exclusion through the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.

8

What ideal did the Greenback movement of the 1870s and 1880s advocate?

What ideal did the Greenback movement of the 1870s and 1880s advocate?

9

Why did industrialists of the late 1800s like John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie come to be called "robber barons" in the 1930s?


Their business-building activities were viewed more harshly than before.
→ During the Great Depression, and during other periods of economic crisis, many people viewed industrialists quite harshly. A historian coined the term "robber barons" to describe this group at the time, and it is still in use today.

10

Samuel Gompers built his career as president of which of the following labor organizations?

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The American Federation of Labor
→ In late 1886, having failed to persuade the Knights of Labor to reform, the national trade unions formed the American Federation of Labor, with Samuel Gompers, a former head of the Cigar Makers Union, as president.

11

John D. Rockefeller pioneered what business strategy?


Horizontal integration
→ Rockefeller pioneered the strategy that became known as horizontal integration. He pressured competitors through predatory pricing, but when he had driven them to failure, he invited rivals to merge their companies into his conglomerate. Most accepted the offer, often because they had no choice.

12

What did the practice of having "paper sons" allow immigrants in the late nineteenth century to do?


Evade restrictions on Chinese immigration
→ Some would-be immigrants, known as paper sons, relied on Chinese residents in the United States, who generated documents falsely claiming the newcomers as American-born children.

13

Why did members of the Farmers' Alliance form cooperatives in the late nineteenth century?

To better their economic position
→ Alliance leaders pinned their initial hopes on cooperative stores and exchanges that would circumvent middlemen. Cooperatives gathered farmers' orders and bought in bulk at wholesale prices, passing the savings along.

14

Which of these new policies was a typical innovation of department stores and not other retail businesses in the late nineteenth century?

Large display windows
→ Innovations such as large display windows or elaborate Christmas decorations made shopping in urban department stores an experience and a new form of leisure, rather than simply a more convenient form of buying consumer goods.

15

Which immigrant group sought to escape religious repression in addition to the hope of finding economic opportunity?


Jews
→ From 1880 to 1920, more than 3 million poverty-stricken Jews arrived from Russia, Ukraine, Poland, and other parts of Eastern Europe, transforming the Jewish presence in the United States.

16

What was one reason that the cooperatives of the Farmers' Alliances failed in the late nineteenth century?


Lack of funds
→ The Texas Alliance established a huge cooperative enterprise to market cotton and provide farmers with cheap loans. When cotton prices fell further in 1891, however, the Texas exchange failed. Other cooperatives also suffered from chronic underfunding and lack of credit, and they faced hostility from merchants and lenders they tried to circumvent.

17

What type of mills emerged to become large-scale employers in the Carolinas and Georgia by 1900?


Textile
→ By 1900, new textile mills had spread across Georgia and the Carolinas, relying upon child labor to create a low-wage industrial sector.

18

What was the ethnic background of most American Jews before the 1880s?

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German
→ The ethnic background of most American Jews before the 1880s was German.

19

Which of the following would have been an unlikely reform cause for the urban Knights of Labor in the nineteenth century?


Cuts on federal income taxes
→ There was no federal income tax in the nineteenth century. Seeking to limit the aggregation of wealth, the Knights of Labor sought the creation of a federal tax on the nation's highest incomes.

20

What characteristic of the railroad industry made it an originator for innovative forms of corporate organization in the late nineteenth century?


Its decentralized nature required more elaborate organizational structures.
→ Supervising a 500-mile-long line was impossible for one manager at one station. To avoid delays, crashes, and loss of business, railroad executives gradually expanded corporate management to departmentalized operations by function in which they established clear lines of communication and in which cost accounting became perfected.

21

After 1892, most European immigrants to the United States were routed through what location?


Ellis Island
→ An enormous receiving station, Ellis Island received millions of immigrants after 1892 when the station opened to regulate immigration to the United States.

22

Which issue would Greenbackers have been unwilling to support in the 1870s and 1880s?


Deregulate industries
→ Greenbackers supported increasing the regulations governing insurance companies, utility companies, railroads, and other big businesses. Doing so, they believed, would protect workers and farmers against predatory practices.

23

What group was the target of nineteenth-century industrialists' use of predatory pricing?


Competitors
→ To encourage customers to switch companies, producers slashed prices in a particular market below productions costs, hoping to drive independent distributors to the wall. Once they had destroyed their competitors, they could raise prices again.

24

Refer to the map Sources of European Immigration to the United States, 1871–1910

to answer the following question. Click the image to view full-size.

Based on the map, how did immigration shift from the first period, 1871–1880, to the second period, 1901–1910?


The primary source of immigration shifted to the south and east of Europe.
→ The main sources of immigration in the latter period were Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, all south and east of previous main sources of immigrants.

25

Terence Powderly led which organization in the 1880s?

Report this questionGreat job! The correct answer is
Knights of Labor
→ Terence V. Powderly was the leader of the Knights of Labor during the organization's height in the 1880s.

26

Terence Powderly led which organization in the 1880s?

Report this questionGreat job! The correct answer is
Knights of Labor
→ Terence V. Powderly was the leader of the Knights of Labor during the organization's height in the 1880s.

27

What new figure appeared in the workplace in the late nineteenth century?


Middle manager
→ As the managerial revolution unfolded, the headquarters of major corporations began to house departments supervised by middle managers, something not seen before in American industry. Middle managers took on entirely new tasks, directing the flow of goods, labor, and information throughout the enterprise.

28

What new figure appeared in the workplace in the late nineteenth century?


Middle manager
→ As the managerial revolution unfolded, the headquarters of major corporations began to house departments supervised by middle managers, something not seen before in American industry. Middle managers took on entirely new tasks, directing the flow of goods, labor, and information throughout the enterprise.

29

Most of the immigrants without industrial skills who flooded into American factories in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries came from which geographical region?


Southern and eastern Europe
→ Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (Italians and Slavs) were largely peasants, displaced by the breakdown of the traditional rural economies of their native countries. They better filled the need for unskilled factory work than did immigrants from northern Europe, many of whom brought a craft or trade with them.

30

The Knights of Labor excluded which ethnic group of workers in the nineteenth century?


Chinese
→ Although the Knights excluded the Chinese because of white Pacific coast antipathy to Chinese labor competition, they included Germans, English, and black workers within the decentralized labor movement in the 1880s.

31

John D. Rockefeller pioneered a business strategy that became known by what name?


Horizontal integration
→ Rockefeller pioneered the strategy that became known as horizontal integration. He pressured competitors through predatory pricing, but when he had driven them to failure, he invited rivals to merge their companies into his conglomerate. Most accepted the offer, often because they had no choice.

32

The gold rush in which state brought thousands of Chinese to the United States in the 1840s?


Report this questionGreat job! The correct answer is
California
→ The California gold rush brought thousands of Chinese to the United States in the 1850s.

33

Why did farmers object to the high tariff policies of the 1870s and 1880s?

They suggested the tariffs increased prices on manufactured goods but failed to protect export crops.
→ High tariffs raised the prices on imported goods in order to protect domestic manufacturing in the United States. Farmers suggested that American tariff policies forced rural families to pay too much for basic necessities, while failing to protect the prices of America's great export crops, cotton and wheat.

34

What prevented most married women from finding work in factories or as secretaries in the late 1800s and early 1900s?


Day care was not available.
→ Married women had to find ways to tend to the children as well as make additional income. They found such opportunities by taking in laundry, by housing boarders in the family home, or by doing piecework.

35

Which statement characterizes the larger historical significance of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?


It provided a model for future exclusionary immigration policies.
→ The Chinese Exclusion Act created the legal foundations on which exclusionary immigration policies would be built after the 1920s, which placed severe restrictions on European immigration as well as Asian migrants.

36

By 1890, as a result of Greenback movement, twenty-nine states had passed laws to regulate what industry?


Railroad
→ By the early 1880s, twenty-nine states had created railroad commissions to supervise railroad rates and policies; others appointed commissions to regulate insurance and utility companies. These regulatory efforts were not always effective, but they were important starting points for reform.

37

Which cattle dealer built a meatpacking company based on vertical integration in the late nineteenth century?

Gustavus F. Swift
→ Gustavus F. Swift was a cattle dealer in Chicago who applied the assembly line to meatpacking and had engineers who invented the refrigerator car. These innovations allowed him to take advantage of the extensive infrastructure of railroad lines and expand his perishable meatpacking business to a national scale.

38

In an era of cheap and increasingly rapid travel by steamship, many immigrants came to the United States as


sojourners.
→ These European immigrants expected to work and save for a few years and then head home.

39

How did the federal government respond to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?


By creating the National Guard
→ In the aftermath of the strike, the U.S. government created the National Guard, which was not intended to protect Americans against foreign invasion but to enforce order at home.

40

Child laborers were most commonly employed in coal mines and which other American industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?


Textiles
→ Child labor was most widespread in the South where children were employed—often along with the rest of their families—in textile mills. Children worked in northern textile mills in this period as well.

41

What did Andrew Carnegie, Gustavus Swift, and John D. Rockefeller all have in common?


They succeeded through vertical integration.
→ Carnegie, Swift, and Rockefeller controlled production and sales all the way from the raw material to the final product. All three sought to exercise control over their marketing and distribution, and all three sought to avoid the dips of the economy's boom-and-bust cycles.

42

Why did so many Chinese men on the Pacific coast decide to open restaurants or operate laundries?


Due to intense hostility in the region, these were the few niches open to them.
→ The Chinese confronted far more intense hostility in the form of abysmal pay and threats from coworkers, leading many of them to withdraw to the only niches open to them—restaurants and laundries.

43

Refer to the image Marianna Mine Disaster

to answer the following question. Click the image to view full-size.

This photograph shows the residents of an immigrant working-class community in Marianna, Pennsylvania, observing the passage of a horse-drawn wagon carrying the bodies of some of the 158 miners killed in an explosion in the local coal mine in November of 1908. What does the image suggest about the impact of large-scale industrialization on the experiences of working people and communities around the turn of the nineteenth century?

Industrialization frequently exacted a high cost on individual workers, their families, and their communities.
→ This photograph illustrates the fact that industrialization led to the deaths of many workers, and that it caused considerable suffering among the people who lived with and near them. It demonstrates the human devastation sometimes wrought by industrial disasters.

44

Refer to the image Child Labor

to answer the following question. Click the image to view full-size.

This photograph, taken in a glass factory at midnight, was produced by the Progressive reformer Lewis Hine. What was Hine's likely attitude about the subject of the image?

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Industrial work is dirty, dangerous, exploitative, and harmful for children.
→ Hine and his Progressive colleagues opposed child labor. This photograph, taken for the National Child Labor Committee, aimed to show the dangers and exploitation endured by working children.
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45

The "cooperative commonwealth" was the ideal advocated by which nineteenth-century labor organization?


Report this questionGreat job! The correct answer is
Knights of Labor
→ The "cooperative commonwealth" was the ideal of the labor organization called the Knights of Labor.

46

Refer to the map Sources of European Immigration to the United States, 1871–1910

to answer the following question. Click the image to view full-size.

Based on the map and what you know from prior reading, why did Americans refer to the immigration of the period from 1871 to 1910 as the "new" immigration?


The main sources of immigration shifted during this period.
→ Earlier in the nineteenth century, the main sources of immigration were the British Isles and Germany. In the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the chief sources were eastern and southern Europe.

47

In the 1890s, few women in the United States worked in what occupations?


Skilled trades
→ The sex typing of occupations was a complicated phenomenon, but women were generally excluded from traditionally higher-paid skilled trades.

48

What factor pushed increasing numbers of people to emigrate from Europe in the late nineteenth century?

The commercialization of agriculture
→ The commercialization of agriculture cheapened the price of major crops such as wheat or corn in world markets, making peasant economies in Eastern Europe, Italy, and other regions uncompetitive. Millions of displaced rural people ended up searching for alternatives, with many choosing to emigrate to South America and the United States.

49

On which factor did American economic growth in the late 1800s depend?


A rapidly growing population
→ Economic growth in the United States depended on America's large and rapidly growing population, which provided both a workforce and consumers, as well as its expansion into the West and its integrated national marketplace.

50

Which labor organization was formed in the late nineteenth century by craft workers and organized along occupational lines?


Report this questionGreat job! The correct answer is
The American Federation of Labor
→ The American Federation of Labor was formed by craft workers organized along occupational lines.

51

What selling strategy did Montgomery Ward and Sears use to reach rural customers in the late nineteenth century?

Mail-order catalogs
→ While department stores became urban fixtures, Montgomery Ward and Sears built mail-order empires. Rural families from Vermont to California pored over the companies' annual catalogs, making wish lists of tools, clothes, furniture, and toys.

52

After the Civil War, the United States signed the Burlingame Treaty with which country to control emigration from that country?


China
→ After the Civil War, the Burlingame Treaty between the United States and China opened the way for increasing numbers of Chinese to emigrate to the United States.

53

How did Asian immigrants fare in the nineteenth-century United States as compared to European immigrants in the same period?

Asian immigrants generally faced harsher treatment in the United States than Europeans.
→ Asian immigrants to the United States in the late nineteenth century faced even harsher treatment than European newcomers. Chinese immigrants in California in particular faced a rising tide of racism that led to threats, violence, and, ultimately, legal exclusion.